International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) <p>International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) accepts research works from scholars, academicians, professors, doctorates, lecturers, and corporate in their respective expertise of studies. IERJ is Peer-Reviewed Journal which is Equivalent to UGC Approved Journals</p> en-US [email protected] (Dr. R. Joshi) [email protected] (Dr. R. Joshi) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 04:39:25 +0000 OJS 60 LEGAL ASSISTANCE FOR MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES <p>To address the major obstacles that rural residents and members of minority communities have in obtaining essential legal information. By giving underprivileged populations access to a user-friendly, multilingual, and culturally aware chatbot platform, we hope to empower them. Through the application of sophisticated Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology and an extensive legal library, the chatbot is engineered to provide customized legal advice that is specific to the rights, responsibilities, and legal procedures that are pertinent to the distinct communities. We have integrated community feedback tools into our platform to continuously enhance relevance and accuracy.</p> Kiruthika E., Ranjith C., Kirubananthan E., Manoj Kannan L., Praveen A. Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HARMONY OF MIND AND BODY: STUDY OF IMPORTANCE OF YOGA IN HUMAN LIFE <p>This paper explores the historical evolution, principles, and health implications of yoga, emphasizing its holistic approach to physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. Tracing its roots from the Vedic period to modern times, the article outlines the eightfold path of yoga, emphasizing its integral role in spiritual development according to Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. The discussion on health benefits encompasses cardiovascular and respiratory fitness, mental well-being, and stress management. Methodologically, the review employs a systematic approach, utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. It includes diverse participants, interventions, and outcomes, ensuring a comprehensive analysis of systematic reviews related to yoga interventions.</p> Dr. Jagruti Sunil Pawar Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE AND CAREER DECEISION MAKING ABILITY ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNDER-GRADUATE STUDENTS <p>Students progress through their educational journey by maintaining a balance in the ever changing family, educational and social environments from primary level to higher studies. Education helps students to strengthen their intellectual power, create emotional balance, empower them morally and culturally and provides direction to their lifestyle. It also develops career &nbsp;awareness among the students. During college education, students start forming a clear vision towards career options. Due to their career decision making ability they make appropriate selection of subjects and they give importance to their good academic performance. This research conducted on the &nbsp;students studying in the first year of graduation in Durg district is related to the impact of their lifestyle and career decision making ability on their educational achievement. The study, conducted on a sample of 600 students selected from 10 colleges using a stratified random method, uses valid and reliable authentic scales of lifestyle and professional decision-making ability. On the basis of the values obtained from these scales, a 2X2 two-way ANOVA of their educational achievement was performed by dividing the students into two groups of lifestyle (high, low) and two (high, low) groups of career decision making ability. From the results of the F-test, the main effect of lifestyle and career decision-making ability on educational achievement was found to be significant, whereas their interaction effect was not found to be significant. The educational achievement of students with high lifestyle and high professional decision making ability was found to be better than the students with low lifestyle and low professional decision making ability.</p> Dipty Shrivastava, Dr. Nisha Shrivastava, Dr. Pushpalata Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EXPLANATION OF NULL RESULTS OF MICHELSON AND MORLEY EXPERIMENT BY CLASSICAL MECHANICS PART II <p>Interferometry is the branch of optics in&nbsp;which experiments are conducted on wave nature of light. The light waves are superimposed to generate interference fringes and measurements are made. In these experiments where diffraction and interference are observed, the wavefront of light plays a very important role. While interpreting the results of these experiments the role of wavefront is completely ignored resulting into&nbsp;wrong predictions. In such an experiment conducted by Michelson and Morley to measure the velocity of earth in space the role of wavefront was ignored. It has been established by the results of Fizeau experiment and other similar experiments that speed of light is constant and it is not effected by the motion of source of light and motion of medium in which it propagates. Which later on become the second postulate of special theory of relativity. In the present article null results of Michelson and Morley experiment is discussed in a very different way keeping in view constancy of speed of light, wavefront of light and Huygen's principle according&nbsp;to classical mechanics.</p> Dharam Vir Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING A STACKING ENSEMBLE APPROACH WITH LSTM AND RANDOM FOREST MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES <p>Credit cards play an essential role in today’s digital economy, and their usage has recently grown tremendously, accompanied by a corresponding increase in credit card fraud. Machine learning (ML) algorithms have been utilized for credit card fraud detection. However, the dynamic shopping patterns of credit card holders and the class imbalance problem have made it difficult for ML classifiers to achieve optimal performance.</p> <p>This research project aims to develop a reliable credit card fraud detection system through a stacking ensemble method, integrating LSTM and Random Forest machine learning techniques. This approach aims to enhance fraud detection accuracy by leveraging the diverse strengths of both models. The system will undergo rigorous evaluation to ensure its efficiency in identifying fraudulent transactions while minimizing false positives. By combining the temporal sequencing capabilities of LSTM with the decision-making process of Random Forest, the proposed approach seeks to achieve heightened sensitivity to fraudulent patterns while maintaining computational efficiency. Ultimately, the objective is to bolster security measures and protect financial institutions and consumers from potential fraud risks.</p> Varun Chellapilla, Sravya Chikkam, Jayanth Sriram Melinati, Mr. M. Ezhilarasan Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PUNISHMENT FREE ZONE (PFZ) IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL <p><strong>A STUDY ON ATTITUDE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PUNISHMENT FREE ZONE (PFZ) IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL</strong></p> Dr. Menaka Naik Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DYNAMIC TRENDS IN LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, AND FISHERY INDUSTRIES IN JHARKHAND : FUTURE SCOPE FOR EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND FOOD SECURITY <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">The state of Jharkhand serves as a prime example of the intricate interaction between geographical, demographic, and economic elements within the Indian subcontinent. Its agriculture, forestry, fishing, and livestock sectors play a crucial role in the state's economy, generating employment opportunities, particularly in rural areas, and contributing to poverty alleviation and economic diversification. Collectively, these sectors shape Jharkhand's GDP, fostering a path of balanced and sustainable economic development. They also provide essential raw materials for industries, ensure food security, and promote environmental conservation. Additionally, livestock and fisheries contribute to foreign exchange earnings, enhancing the state's economic resilience. This article highlights the changing dynamic trends of allied activities of agriculture like livestock, poultry and fishery in Jharkhand that not only diversify the agriculture income but also open new avenues of food and employment security along with propagating sustainable economic development in the state.</p> Dr. Ifsha Khurshid Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE SYNERGY BETWEEN THE NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY (NEP) AND THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK (NCF) IN INDIA: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS <p>The educational landscape in India has witnessed significant reforms with the introduction of the National Education Policy (NEP) and the ongoing implementation of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF). These two foundational documents play crucial roles in shaping the direction of education in the country. This paper aims to explore the synergies between NEP and NCF, highlighting how their alignment enhances the quality, inclusivity, and relevance of education in India.</p> Dr. Dipankar Biswas Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 1-D SEMICONDUCTING NANOWIRES AND THEIR ASSEMBLY <p>Nanowires, the one-dimensional(1D) semiconducting structures are one of the most potent and flexible classes of synthetically reconfigurable nanoscale basic elements widely used for examining the basic physical characteristics of nanomaterials and assembling a range of functional nanostructure systems. To design these functional nanostructure systems, it is critical to guarantee that the synthesis of these structures, as well as their assembly, are exceedingly exact and precise. The synthesis and assembly of these nanostructures is what defines the success of the nanostructure systems. Nanowire assembly is challenging because the required length scales prohibit direct interaction and increase the instability aspects of electrostatic forces and mass transfer. This paper focuses on the different core assembly methodologies of one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires into desired designs for functional nanostructure systems.</p> Selva Lakshman Murali Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SKILLQUEST EDU: GAME-BASED EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES (DEAF) <p>Skill Quest Edu is an innovative platform empowering deaf individuals in mastering pronunciation and language skills with over 90% accuracy. In the current educational landscape, traditional approaches may not fully accommodate diverse learning needs, leading to limited resources and disparities. Our proposed system addresses these challenges by integrating game-based education, providing interactive learning experiences tailored to individual strengths and challenges. SkillQuest Edu aims to bridge communication barriers, fostering confidence and proficiency in language acquisition among&nbsp;deaf&nbsp;learners.</p> Dr. Vijayalakshmi P., Vinish V., Santhosh Kumar B., Sunil Kumar A., Suryaprakash S. Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SWARN BHASM IS A TRADITIONAL AYURVEDIC MEDICINE, SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND USES OF SWARN BHASM AS A NANOPARTICLES <p>Nanotechnology is an emerging technology which involve advance study of particles having size between 1 to 100 nm. In Indian continents an advanced medical science exists from a very long-time 7<sup>th</sup> century AD. During ayurvedic treatment mostly bhasm was used, these were prepared reducing by particle size by calcination process. In calcination process pure metal that are zero valent changed into multi- valent. in this study gold bhasm was prepared and particle size was studied by using XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM spectra and confirmed by laser particle size distribution, and it has found it was 10 nm. elemental analysis of bhasm (ash) was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of gold purity. During study the size of gold particles was 45 nm and purity of gold was 99 %.</p> Yogendra Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 UNDERSTANDING GROUNDWATER DEPLETION IN INDIA: ASSESSING RISK THRESHOLDS AND ANALYSING CAUSATIVE FACTORS <p>Although hidden below the Earth’s surface, groundwater makes up 99% of Earth’s liquid fresh water and plays an important role in the water cycle. Rivers, lakes and wetlands are surface manifestations of groundwater, exchanging flow with the groundwater reservoir that feeds them when they need water and takes some of their flow when surface water is in excess. Groundwater also controls many features on the Earth’s surface. The depth of the water table is partly responsible for different plant species occupying different positions along the slopes from hill to valley, as only the drought-tolerant plants can live on dry hillsides and water-tolerant plants live near streams. Dissolution of carbonate rocks by flowing groundwater creates caves and sinkholes. In desert environments, groundwater discharge forms oases, which provide habitats for animals and plants. Groundwater provides drinking water entirely or in part for as much as 50% of the global population and accounts for 43% of all water used for irrigation. Worldwide, 2.5 billion people depend solely on groundwater resources to satisfy their basic daily water needs. The Earth’s population of nearly 8 billion in 2020 is expected to reach 11 billion by 2100. Humans will have to learn to produce sufficient food without destroying the soil, water and climate. This has been called the greatest challenge humanity has faced. Sustainable management of groundwater is at the heart of the solution. Scientific understanding and proper management of groundwater is essential because groundwater can alleviate the problem if we seek its responsible use and replenishment. Modern scientific measurements show that many of the major aquifers (groundwater reservoirs) of the world are being depleted. Such depletion can lead to a decrease in stream flow, drying of springs or wetlands, loss of vegetation, water-level declines in wells, and land subsidence. Yet another threat to groundwater is pollution resulting from human activity, generating chemicals and wastes that have leaked into the subsurface. Pollution degrades the quality of groundwater and poses a threat to human and ecological health. As the human population grows, more demand will be placed on groundwater, a vast, but finite, resource. The need for understanding our groundwater systems and thoughtfully managing them within the constraints of the hydrologic cycle is greater than ever. In this paper, our primary objective is to examine the history of the water crisis in India, critical risk tipping points and delve into the analysis of how we arrived at the current state of groundwater depletion, exploring the specific conditions and factors that have led us here. Furthermore, we will project the trajectory of this situation and assess where we are headed. Most importantly, we will outline the vision for the future that we aim to craft, considering the well-being of the next generations and the sustainability of India's groundwater resources.</p> Vian Dhanda Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GUIDING THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGICAL ERA: UNDERSTANDING AND ADDRESSING MODERN CHALLENGES IN CHILD PSYCHOLOGY <p>Articles In an era marked by rapid technological advancements, children are navigating a complex landscape that significantly impacts their psychological development. This article delves into the multifaceted challenges faced by children in today's digital age and offers insights into addressing these issues from a psychological perspective.&nbsp;The pervasive presence of technology introduces novel challenges that affect children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. From excessive screen time and digital addiction to cyberbullying and online predators, children encounter various stressors that can detrimentally impact their well-being. Furthermore, the digital realm often blurs the boundaries between the virtual and real worlds, posing unique challenges for children in developing critical thinking skills and discerning between fact and fiction.&nbsp; Understanding these challenges is crucial for devising effective solutions. This involves fostering digital literacy skills, promoting healthy screen-time habits, and cultivating resilience to cyber-related stressors. Additionally, fostering open communication channels between children, parents, and educators can facilitate constructive dialogue and support systems to address emerging issues.&nbsp;Moreover, recognizing the importance of holistic development, interventions should encompass not only technological aspects but also consider broader psychosocial factors. By fostering a supportive environment that nurtures emotional intelligence, empathy, and interpersonal skills, children can develop the resilience and coping mechanisms necessary to thrive in the digital age. This article synthesizes current research findings and practical insights to offer a comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by children in today's technologically driven society. By integrating psychological perspectives with practical strategies, this research aims to empower stakeholders in promoting the well-being and healthy development of children in the digital era.&nbsp;</p> Pooja Suram, Mohan Kumar Suram Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SPEECH-TO-TEXT TRANSCRIPTION FOR CORPORATION GRIEVANCE CALLS <p>To evaluate and enhance an existing open-source speech-to-text transcription tool for accurately converting feedback calls about citizen grievances into English text. The focus lies on achieving measurable improvements in transcription accuracy across calls made in Tamil or English. Rather than creating a new system, the project concentrates on refining an established open-source solution. The endeavor spans domains including Natural Language Processing (NLP), speech recognition algorithms, and machine learning. Through this effort, the objective is to enhance the tool's efficacy in processing multilingual data and better serve the needs of diverse linguistic communities in citizen grievances.</p> Sampath MK, Sujeet P., Sanjay P., Sanjay S., Soundarrajan A. Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 RAM MANOHAR LOHIA'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOCIALIST THOUGHT IN INDIA: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE <p>This research paper critically evaluates Ram Manohar Lohia's contributions to socialist thought in India, examining the practicality, relevance, and impact of his socialist ideals on Indian society and politics. Through an analysis of Lohia's key principles, socio-political context, and historical legacy, this study provides a nuanced understanding of Lohia's role in shaping the socialist discourse in India. The paper explores Lohia's emphasis on economic equality, decentralization, and village-centric development, highlighting how these ideas were shaped by his experiences in the Indian independence movement. While Lohia's ideas resonated with many and influenced post-independence socialist thinking, they also faced criticisms regarding their feasibility and practicality in the diverse Indian socio-economic landscape. The conclusion offers a final assessment of Lohia's contributions, acknowledging their significance while also recognizing the complexities involved in implementing socialist principles in India. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research, including exploring the enduring relevance of Lohia's ideas in contemporary India and conducting comparative studies with other socialist thinkers and movements globally.</p> Anitha S. V., Dr. Swamy H. Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 पंचायती राज में महिलाओं की राजनीतिक भूमिका: एक अवलोकन <p>भारत में प्राचीन समय से जीवन के हर क्षेत्र में महिलाओं ने पुरुषों के साथ मिलकर काम किया है। भारतीय महिलाएं चाहे वह शहरी क्षेत्र की हो या गांव की, सहयोग और विकास कार्य में अपनी भागीदारी सुनिश्चित करती रहीं है। भारत में महिलाओं की विशाल संख्या अधीनता तथा उपेक्षित वर्ग का जीवन बिता रहीं है। हमारे देश की जनसंख्या का लगभग आधा हिस्सा महिलाएं है। अतः देश का समग्र विकास तब तक नहीं हो सकता है जब तक आधी आबादी को समुचित प्रतिनिधितव नहीं प्रप्त हो जाता है। हालांकि महिलाएं अब भी बड़ी संख्या में आर्थिक एवं राजनैतिक क्रियाकलापों तथा परिवर्तन की प्रक्रिया में भाग ले रहीं है, पर वास्तव में उन्हे लाभ प्राप्त नहीं हो रहा है। स्थानीय शासन की इकाईयों मंे ऐसा बहुत कम ही होता है कि ग्रामीण महिलाएं प्रत्यक्ष रूप से स्वयं अपने बलबूते पर ही निर्वाचित हो। जबकि अधिकांश रूप से यह देखा जाता है कि जो महिला प्रतिनिधि निर्वाचित होती हैं उसमें उनके परिवार के पुरूषों की भूमिका महत्वपूर्ण होती है। विभिन्न सामाजिक-आर्थिक रुकावटों के कारण महिलाओं को समाज में छोटा दर्जा प्राप्ंत है। महिलाओं द्वारा अनौपचारिक राजनैतिक क्रियाओं में तीव्र वृद्धि के बावजूद राजनैतिक संरचना में इनकी भूमिका वास्तव में अपरिवर्तित रही है।</p> डॉ. जयश्री रणसिंह Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON REPRODUCTIVE LIFE OF THE BENGALEE HINDU FEMALES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS <p>Reproduction is the process by which new individuals of a species are produced and the genetic materials are passed through generation after generation (Tortora, 2003). The existence of a species is maintained through the urge for the reproduction. Pearl (1939) accounted the urge for reproduction as basic attribute of all living organisms. The expressive form of this urge for the reproduction could be accounted as reproductivity or fertility. The urge for the reproduction in human could not be expressed in its full strength due to several restrictive factors work on it. Demographically observed fertility or infertility is the result of a well-defined number of both biological and behavioural factors, which serve to mediate the influence of culture, society, economic conditions, living standards, and other similar background determinants on individual reproductive behavior (Frank <em>et al</em>., 1994). The hedonistic attitude of human for the reduction of fertility would be described through the "Demographic Transition Model" (DTM) which defines the transition from high <a href="">birth rates</a> and high <a href="">death rates</a> to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized <a href="">economy</a> (Thompson, 1929). In the present study an attempt has been made to understand the current status of the reproductive life of the contemporary Bengalee females and the effect of demographic transition as well as fertility transition on the same. Materials of the present cross sectional study comprises with 200 adult married Bengalee females belonging to different caste group lived in a semi urban region of west Bengal. Mean age of the population was 32.63 ± 10.64. The result shows a remarkable decadal change in the reproductive life of the population. Age at menarche seems to follow the secular trend to being decreasing when comparing with a data (mean age 12.79 ± 41.37 and 13.41 ± 1.48 respectively). Comparison with a previous work revealed that the rate of literate women, employed women, the family income etc have been increased noticeable. The number of contraceptive used or adopt family planning families has also been increased remarkably in comparison with the earlier data (64.5 % and 56% respectively). Accordingly the rate of live birth has been decreased. The present study also differs from the age at marriage and marriage conception interval (MCI). Thus the present work revealed that the females (mothers) as well as the couples are more conscious about their reproductive life and adopt different family planning methods. Sharp decadal changes on their reproductive life could also be noticed which may be the ultimate result of the demographic transition.</p> Jayita Roy Tapadar Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 STUDENT SUCCESS COACHING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE <p>Student success coaching has emerged as a vital support mechanism in higher education. It aims to bolster academic performance, personal development, and overall well-being. This paper reviews the literature on student success coaching and synthesizes existing research to illuminate its evolving landscape. The review delves into the nature of student success coaching, characterized by personalized guidance, frequent interactions, and a focus on individual students’ needs. Definitions and models of student success coaching are explored, addressing students’ diverse aspirations and challenges. Trends in student success coaching underscore its effectiveness in integrating students into academic and social aspects of postsecondary institutions, thereby breaking down barriers to success. Coaching interventions encompass goal setting, academic planning, and connection to resources, all geared toward facilitating student achievement. This paper identifies areas for further research, emphasizing the need to explore the effectiveness of coaching across diverse student populations and its long-term impact beyond immediate academic outcomes. Additionally, institutional factors and the role of technology in enhancing coaching programs are proposed as avenues for future inquiry.</p> Dr. Lysette Dorothy Cohen Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CLOUD ACCOUNTING UNVEILED: INVESTIGATING CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS IN MODERN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT <p>Cloud accounting has emerged as a transformative force in modern financial management, offering businesses unprecedented opportunities to streamline processes, drive innovation, and achieve strategic objectives. This paper provides a comprehensive examination of cloud accounting, exploring its key features, benefits, challenges, and prospects in detail. The analysis begins by elucidating the fundamental concepts of cloud accounting, highlighting its accessibility, scalability, and cost efficiency compared to traditional accounting methods. It delves into the challenges faced by businesses in adopting cloud accounting, including security concerns, data privacy issues, integration complexities, and regulatory compliance requirements. Despite these challenges, the prospects for cloud accounting are bright, with numerous opportunities for businesses to leverage its benefits and drive growth. The paper identifies scalability, flexibility, cost efficiency, innovation, collaboration, security, and integration as key prospects in cloud accounting, highlighting their transformative potential in reshaping financial management practices. Furthermore, the paper underscores the importance of real-time collaboration, accessibility, and security in fostering a culture of transparency, accountability, and trust within organizations. It emphasizes the role of cloud accounting in creating interconnected ecosystems of applications and data sources, enabling better decision-making and operational efficiency across the organization.</p> Dr. Rupam Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A LITERATURE REVIEW ON MEDICATIONS MENTIONED FOR EYE DISEASES (KAN NOIGAL) IN SELECTED SIDDHA LITERATURES <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong></p> <p>Eye care and treatment has been given much prominence in the siddha system of medicine from time immemorial. The types of eye disorders, their etiology, treatment, and preventive measures to protect the eye from the diseases are all mentioned in various siddha literatures.</p> <p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong></p> <p>To provide an updated overview of medicines used for eye diseases in siddha literatures and to list out the medications used in eye diseases.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong></p> <p>The data about eye diseases and its treatment are collected from Government Siddha Medical College Library, Central Council for Research in Siddha Library, Anna Centenary Library, Siddha literatures such as Agathiyar Nayana vidhi, Nagamuni Nayana vidhi, Sarabendra vaithiya muraigal (Nayana Roga Chigichai), Anuboga Vaithiya Navaneedham, Kannusamy Parambarai Vaithiyam etc and also the information about eye diseases is collected from the articles published in reputed journals such as Pubmed and google scholar.</p> <p><strong>RESULT: </strong></p> <p>The study will be useful for standardization and evaluation of eye medications and beneficial for future generations to carry out the research process on new eye medications.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong></p> <p>There is a need to understand the importance of routine eye care because any impairment in our vision leads to dependency on others. So I conclude that this study will be beneficial for routine eye care and the research process on new eye medications.</p> Priyanka T., Shanmuga Priya C., Sateesh Kumar A. Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WELFARE AND RURAL WELL-BEING IN POST MAO CHINA (1978-88): A DEBATE <p>During the first decade of reform (1978-88) there was an impressive economic growth, change in the output growth pattern, shift in the structure of employment, and rise in the income and consumption level of the peasants. The number of those in absolute poverty declined significantly, though rural income inequality, both regionally and intra regionally, even at the village level increased significantly. In this context the question arises: did the growth of income and output per head due to economic reforms accompany a similarly improved performance with regard to non -income indicators of well -being? Based on available literature on rural reforms in post Mao China, this paper examines the debate on the above question. This question assumes importance because China in the pre-reform period had brought remarkable improvements in living conditions including the expansion of life expectancy, reduction infant mortality and illiteracy even with the slow and low growth in per capita income. &nbsp;From the Nolan and Sen it emerges that while policy and institutional changes meant for raising economic growth as well as per capita income were remarkably successful, the same instruments, however, undermined the public provisioning of social goods and services and affected the length and quality of' life of peasants in poorer households for whom market medicated access to health services were proving increasingly difficult. But while the pre-reform Maoist period, had strong egalitarian distributive mechanism in place, the welfare standards and quality of services were too low.</p> Rajendra Dayal Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 REVIEW ON PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH: AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE <p>A rapidly developing economy creates surge in energy demand and forced to find various alternative energy sources. Though many non-conventional energy sources have come up in the energy landscape, the t dependency on coal-based energy has not been reduced. Continuous coal burning generates huge quantity of Fly Ash and creates problems of storage, transportation, and management for power plants. If the fly ash generated is not handled properly, it poses a serious threat to ecology and the environment. The present study begins with focusing on the importance of coal in the Indian energy sector and discuss the status of fly ash generation and utilization throughout the years. It also focuses on how enforced laws and regulations help for management of fly ash. It emphasizes fly ash classification and physical-chemical characteristics, then, elaborates on the different sectors that have adopted fly ash as resource material and proven its worth over a time. This review attempts to highlight the current status of fly ash management in India which contributes to environmental and natural resources conservation.</p> Chandrakant Jangam, D. B. Pannaskar, Paras R. Pujari Copyright (c) 2024 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ) Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000