M. V Raghavendra Rao, Yogesh Acharya, Jitendra Kumar Nayak, Sireesha Bala, Simi Paramban, Anusha C. Pawar


Heavy metals exposure in animals can lead to profound effects in growth and development. Heavy metals can target all protein metabolisms in the body, and are capable of disturbing most of the functions in animals where proteins are involved. Heavy metals primarily cause biochemical lesion and effects in altering protein metabolism. Chronic heavy metal exposure resulted in decrease in hepato-pancreatic weight, hepato-somatic index and embryonic length with subsequent reduction and length and weight of the embryos. An experimental study was performed with viviparous animal Heterometrous fulvipes to access the cumulative effects of these heavy metals on biochemical parameters of  proteins, protein metabolism, and total ninhydrin positive substances (TNPS). Chronic exposure of sub lethal doses of heavy metals in H. fulvipes, depleted the protein content of the maternal tissues, hepatopancreas, pedipalps muscle and haemolymph.  TNPS however was elevated with mercury exposure and decreased with lead. These changes can be attributed to possible proteotypic effect of the heavy metals to meet the excessive demands under the toxic stress. Therefore, it is necessary that heavy metal toxicity be well documented with further study in humans so that adequate precaution should be taken in mother and foetus to decrease its detrimental effects.


Heavy metals, Biochemical alteration, Heterometrous fulvipes, Protein, Injury

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