PASSAGES TO HISTORY: UNDERSTANDING AYYAPPA PANIKER’S PASSAGE TO AMERICA AS A LOCUS OF EAST-WEST DIVIDE

Authors

  • Dr. Viju Kurian Assistant Professor, Department of English, Baselius College, Kottayam

Keywords:

Colonial history, critique of materialism

Abstract

In Ayyappa Paniker's thought-provoking poem, "Passage to America," the poet offers a critical response to Walt Whitman's celebrated work, "Passage to India." As an influential figure in ushering modernism into Malayalam poetry, Paniker's poem reflects the aftermath of living in a country plagued by repeated histories of failures and betrayals. Through seven distinct sections, Paniker explores the tensions between America's technological advancements and its loss of humanity and soul. With a keen eye for imagery and striking metaphors, Paniker delves into themes such as the ravages of war, cultural fusion, futile superiority, lunar exploration, and the longing for a non-materialistic civilization. This essay examines the nuances and underlying critiques in "Passage to America," shedding light on Paniker's poignant commentary on America's societal and moral implications during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

References

I. Kumar, S. P., Chauhan, V. S., & Prakash, B. (Eds.). (2005). Cultural Diversity, Linguistic Plurality, and Literary Traditions in India. New Delhi, India: The Department of English, University of Delhi.

II. M. Alexander (Ed.), Name Me a Word: Indian Writers Reflect on Writing (pp. 186-192). New Haven: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.12987/9780300235654-023

III. Paniker, K. A. (1999). “Passage to America.” Many Mountains Moving, 1(3).

IV. Paniker, K. A. (n.d.). “Passage to America.” PoemHunter. Retrieved from https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/passage-to-america/

V. Satchidanandan, K. (Ed.), Signatures (pp. 187-8). New Delhi: National Book Trust.

Additional Files

Published

15-05-2023

How to Cite

Dr. Viju Kurian. (2023). PASSAGES TO HISTORY: UNDERSTANDING AYYAPPA PANIKER’S PASSAGE TO AMERICA AS A LOCUS OF EAST-WEST DIVIDE. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 9(5). Retrieved from https://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/2744