Sanchita Hazra


Mining has become one of the most important sources for the nation’s development. It is recorded that it earned many crores from mineral production per annum. This resulted in rapid expansions of mining activities and hence, over exploitation of natural resources. Ironically, most of the mineral resources are located in tribal lands and the forests. Thus, mines have had an impact on forest-dependent tribal the most. The greatest impact of displacement due to mining has been the transformation of tribal from a close association and symbiosis with nature to culturally and ecologically degraded communities. The situation in these areas are already extremely disturbing, with massive mining leading to displacement of tribal, destruction of their livelihood support system including forests and water sources, large scale air and water pollution, and destruction of socio-cultural life through massive influx of outsiders. Besides, the R&R Act, 2007, GOI is inadequate to safeguard the economic, cultural and social interests and identities of the tribal people. This has strongly affected the mindset of the tribal people. Undoubtedly, mining induced displacement has brought a drastic changed in socio-economic and cultural life of the tribal people which provide symbolic meaning to their existence, social control, and interaction. Subsequently, it also resulted in emergence of many revolutionary movements in tribal areas which act as counterproductive in nation building process. Therefore, there is urgent need for re-examining the rehabilitation project by considering the people’s socio-economic and cultural needs and immediate attentions are required from corporate sectors to provide basic needs of the displaced people who sacrificed for the growth of the industry. Such initiatives will help in reviving the relationship between the tribal people and the state from a contractual type to a symbiotic type. Considering the fact, it is desirable to rethink and reformulate our policy for a justified distribution of development benefits and to protect the due share of the poor tribal. Especially separate set of development measures are needed for tribes who mostly depend on their land and forest resources. In the wake of unrest problems, there is more need to enlist people’s participation by creating employment opportunities and income generation activities through industry and other service sectors.


Globalisation, Tribal Women, Impact of Empowerment, Mining Sector, Governmental provision.

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