• Phra Suradet Wongfan Ph.D. Research Scholar of Department of Education, at Regional of Institute of Education Mysore, Karnataka, India – 570006


ICT, ICT-enabled education, Thailand, ICT integration


ICT in Thai education as a facilitator is well documented. However, the incorporation of the developing ICT trends for advancement in the basic education establishment in Thailand has been slow. The objective of this study is to present a detailed overview of the advances in ICT-enabled education in Thailand. Through a detailed summary of the the past and present government initiatives, in ICT-enabled education are presented. Further, the barriers inhibiting the integration of ICT in the Thai education system are discussed. Resolutions are then assessed by reviewing some of the significant trends in ICT development and assessing their influence in minimizing barriers. The contribution of this paper will be organized into two parts. First, the paper will advance current knowledge by presenting an updated summary of past and current ICT applications in the field of education and barriers to ICT-enabled education in Thailand. Second, the paper will help examine how the innovative use of technological trends could potentially lower the barriers to integration of ICT and lead to an advanced education system in Thailand.


I. Adhikari, B. K., Zuo, W., & Maharjan, R. (2017). A Performance Analysis of OpenStack Cloud vs Real System on Hadoop Clusters. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing (EDGE) (pp. 194-201). IEEE.

II. Akarawang, C., Kidrakran, P., & Nuangchalerm, P. (2015). Enhancing ICT Competency for Teachers in the Thailand Basic Education System. International Education Studies, 8(6), 1-8.

III. Akarawang, C., Kidrakran, P., & Nuangchalerm, P. (2016). Developing ICT Competency for Thai Teachers through Blended Training. Online Submission, 10(1), 15-21.

IV. Anderson, J. (2010). ICT transforming education: A regional guide. Published by UNESKO Bangkok, 120.

V. Anshari, M., Alas, Y., Sabtu, N. P. H., & Hamid, M. S. A. (2016). Online Learning: trends, issues and challenges in the Big Data Era. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 12(1).

VI. Apiola, M., Pakarinen, S., & Tedre, M. (2011). Pedagogical outlines for OLPC initiatives: A case of Ukombozi school in Tanzania. In IEEE Africon'11 (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

VII. Asian Development Bank. (2012). ICT in Education in Central and WestAsia. Accessed October, 28, 2019.

VIII. Avgerou, C. (2010). Discourses on ICT and development. Information Technologies & International Development, 6(3), 1-18.

IX. Bacsich, P., & Salmon, T. (2014). Thailand in Researching Virtual Initiatives in

X. Bangkok Post. (2014). Get Smart. Accessed November, 10, 2015.

XI. Bau, V., Brough, M., Hartley, J., Hommel, E., Jiang, Y., Lie, R., ... & Park, Y. J. (2014). Technological determinism and social change: Communication in a tech-mad world. Lexington Books.

XII. Birjali, M., Beni-Hssane, A., & Erritali, M. (2016). Learning with big data technology: The future of education. In International Afro-European Conference for Industrial Advancement (pp. 209-217). Springer, Cham.

XIII. Blurton, C. (1999). New directions of ICT-use in education. Accessed November, 24, 2012.

XIV. Bukht, R., & Heeks, R. (2018). Development Implications of Digital Economies.

XV. Chandra, S., & Patkar, V. (2007). ICTS: A catalyst for enriching the learning process and library services in India. The International Information & Library Review, 39(1), 1-11.

XVI. Charoen, D. (2012). The Development of the ICT Cluster in Thailand. NIDA Case Research Journal, 4(2), 41-112.

XVII. Chengyun, Z. (2010). Cloud Security: The security risks of cloud computing, models and strategies. Programmer, 5, 71-73.

XVIII. Cosgrove, J., Butler, D., Leahy, M., Shiel, G., Kavanagh, L., & Creaven, A. M. (2014). The 2013 ICT census in schools–main report. Educational Research Centre, Dublin.

XIX. Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in schools 1980-2000. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

XX. Dahdouh, K., Dakkak, A., Oughdir, L., & Messaoudi, F. (2018). Big data for online learning systems. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2783-2800.

XXI. Dearden, A. (2008). User-centered design considered harmful (with apologies to Edger Dijkstra, Niklaus Wirth, and Don Norman). Information Technologies & International Development, 4(3), 7-12.

XXII. Derndorfer, C. (2010). OLPC in Uruguay: Impressions of Plan Ceibal’s primary school XO Laptop saturation. Educational Technology Debate (ETD). https://edutechdebate. org/olpc-in-south-america/olpc-in-uruguay-impressions-of-plan-ceibal.

XXIII. Dillenbourg, P., & Evans, M. (2011). Interactive tabletops in education. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6, 491-514.

XXIV. Dong, B., Zheng, Q., Qiao, M., Shu, J., & Yang, J. (2009). BlueSky cloud framework: an e-learning framework embracing cloud computing. In IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (pp. 577-582). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

XXV. Dutta, S., Geiger, T., & Lanvin, B. (2015). The global information technology report 2015. In World Economic Forum (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. P80-85).

XXVI. eDLTV Project. (2011), eDLTV: e-Learning. [Online]. Accessed October 1, 2013.

XXVII. Ercan, T. (2010). Effective use of cloud computing in educational institutions. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 938-942.

XXVIII. Fajebe, A. A., Best, M. L., & Smyth, T. N. (2013). Is the one laptop per child enough? Viewpoints from classroom teachers in Rwanda. Information Technologies & International Development, 9(3), 29-42.

XXIX. Fraillon, J., Ainley, J., Schulz, W., Friedman, T., & Gebhardt, E. (2014). Preparing for life in a digital age: The IEA international Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Springer Open.

XXX. Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main Barriers and Possible Enablers of ICTs Integration into Pre-service Teacher Education Programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 193-204.

XXXI. Gonzalez, C., Mora, A., & Toledo, P. (2014). Gamification in intelligent tutoring systems. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality (pp. 221-225). ACM.

XXXII. Grady, N., & Chang, W. (2015). NIST Big Data Interoperability Framework: Volume 1, Definitions (2015).

XXXIII. Gul, L. F. (2015). The changing trends in education. Frontiers in ICT, 2, 1-2.

XXXIV. Gupta, M. (2014). Enhancing quality higher education through successful implementation of ICT information and communication technologies in education with special reference to Rajasthan (thesis). Jagannath University.

XXXV. Handsfield, L. J., Dean, T. R., & Cielocha, C. M. (2009). Becoming critical consumers and producers of text: Teaching literacy with Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 40-50.

XXXVI. Harris, I., Wang, Y., & Wang, H. (2015). ICT in multimodal transport and technological trends: Unleashing potential for the future. International Journal of Production Economics, 159, 88-103.

XXXVII. Hwang, K., & Chen, M. (2017). Big-data analytics for cloud, IoT and cognitive computing. John Wiley & Sons.

XXXVIII. ITU. (2015). Digital divide progress report: 15 year review. Accessed September, 2, 2015.

XXXIX. Jantrakool, R. (2010). Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Vocational Education in Thailand (research report). Seavern Research Conference, Brunei Darussalam.

XL. Jones, R. (2003). Local and national ICT policies. In R. Kozma (Ed.), Technology, innovation, and educational change: A global perspective (pp. 163-194). Eugene, OR, International Society for Technology in Education.

XLI. Keris. (2013). KERIS data collection. Seoul, KERIS.

XLII. Kiattananan, P., & Koanantakool, T. (1998). Schoolnet Thailand: An information infrastructure of the future of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: National Electronics and Computer Technology Center.

XLIII. Klainin, S. (2010). Mathematics education at school level in Thailand: The development - The impacts - The dilemmas. The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST), Bangkok, Thailand.

XLIV. Klainin, S., & Soydhurum, P. (2004). Science Education in Thailand: The results from SISS to TIMSS. Bangkok, Thailand: IPST.

XLV. Kozma, R. (2003). Technology, innovation, and educational change. A Global Perspective. Eugene OR.

XLVI. Kraemer, K. L., Dedrick, J., & Sharma, P. (2009). One laptop per child: Vision vs. reality. Communications of the ACM, 52(6), 66-73.

XLVII. Kularbphettong, K., Kedsiribut, P., & Roonrakwit, P. (2015). Developing an adaptive web-based intelligent tutoring system using mastery learning technique. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 686-691.

XLVIII. Laohajaratsang, T. (2010). E-education in Thailand: Equity, quality and sensitivity for learners and teachers. In Global Learn (pp. 694-700). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

XLIX. Lim, C. P. (2008). Global citizenship education, school curriculum and games: Learning Mathematics, English and Science as a global citizen. Computers & Education, 51, 1073-1093.

L. Lim, C. P., & Oakley, G. (2013). Information and communication technologies (ICT) in primary education: Opportunities and supporting conditions. In Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences (pp. 1-18). Brill Sense.

LI. Ma, L., Chung, J., & Thorson, S. (2005). E-government in China: Bringing economic development through administrative reform. Government Information Quarterly, 22, 20-37.

LII. Makaramani, R. (2013). UNESCO-RCD at SSRU: ICE in education country report. Malaysia: UNESCO Resource Training and Distribution Centre Regional Seminar.

LIII. Manches, A., O’Malley, C., & Benford, S. (2010). The role of physical representations in solving number problems: A comparison of young children’s use of physical and virtual materials. Computers & Education, 54, 622-640.

LIV. Mann, C. L. (2004). Information technologies and international development: Conceptual clarity in the search for commonality and diversity. Information Technologies & International Development, 1(2), 67-79.

LV. Mansell, R. (2002). From digital divides to digital entitlements in knowledge societies. Current Sociology, 50(3), 407-426.

LVI. Mayes, R., Natividad, G. & Spector, J. M. (2015). Challenges for educational technologists in the 21st century. Education Sciences, 5(3), 221-237.

LVII. Meleisea, E. (2008). ICT in teacher education: Case studies from the Asia-Pacific region. UNESCO.

LVIII. Mendez, J. A., & Gonzalez, E. J. (2011). Implementing motivational features in reactive blended learning: Application to an introductory control engineering course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 54(4), 619-627.

LIX. Mikre, F. (2011). The roles of information communication technologies in education: Review article with emphasis to the computer and internet. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences, 6(2), 109-126.

LX. Ministry of Education. (2008). Towards a learning society in Thailand: An introduction to education in Thailand. Ministry of Education of Thailand, Bangkok.

LXI. Ministry of Education. (2008). Towards a Learning Society in Thailand: An introduction to Education in Thailand. Ministry of Education of Thailand, Bangkok.

LXII. Ministry of Education. (2011). Master plan information and communication technology education in Thailand (2011-2013). Bangkok.

LXIII. Ministry of ICT. (2009a). The second Thailand Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Master Plan 2009-2013. Ministry of Information, Communications and Technology, Bangkok.

LXIV. Ministry of ICT. (2009b). ICT for Education Master Plan, 2007-2011. Ministry of Information Communications and Technology, Bangkok.

LXV. NECTEC. (2016). Coding at School powered by KidBright. Accessed October, 28, 2019.

LXVI. Ness, D., & Lin, C. L. (2015). International education: an encyclopedia of contemporary issues and systems. London: Routledge.

LXVII. Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. (2016). Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 34.

LXVIII. OBEC. (2008). Basic Education Core Curriculum B.E. 2551. Ministry of Education of Thailand, Bangkok.

LXIX. OBEC. (2013). Assessment of One to One Initiative in Thailand, The Scheme of One Tablet per Child: OTPC. Secretary-General, Thailand Education Council.

LXX. OEC. (2015). Master Plan for ICT in Education, 2014-2018. Ministry of Education of Thailand, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Bangkok.

LXXI. OECD. (2013). PISA 2012 Results: What Makes Schools Successful (volume IV): Resources, policies and practices. PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris.

LXXII. Office of Basic Education Commission, OBEC. (2007). Report on Students’ Achievement: Grades 6 & 9. Bangkok: Office of Basic Education Commission.

LXXIII. Office of the Education Council, OEC. (2006). Education Reform Roadmap 2005-2008. Bangkok: Prikwan Graphic Press.

LXXIV. Office of the Education Council. (2011). Strategy of produce and development human education reform in decade2 in Thailand (2009-2018). Bangkok, Office of the Education Council, Ministry of education.

LXXV. Office of the National Education Commission. (2003). Education in Thailand 2003/2004. Bangkok: Office of the National Education Commission.

LXXVI. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD. (2016). Education in Thailand: An OECD-UNESCO Perspective. OECD.

LXXVII. Pearson, M. (2015). ICT in the Thai classroom: An assessment of teacher capabilities and attitudes towards the ‘One Tablet Per Child’ policy in Thailand. LSE Asia Research Centre-Thailand Government Scholarship.

LXXVIII. Pelgrum, W. J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT into education: Results from the worldwise educational assessment. Computers and Education, 37, 167-168.

LXXIX. Pena-Lopez, I. (2015). OECD digital economy outlook 2015.

LXXX. Prajaknate, P. (2017). Information Communication Technologies (ICT) for Education Projects in ASEAN: Can We Close the Digital Divide?. In Sustainable Development Goals in the Asian Context (pp. 107-133). Springer, Singapore.

LXXXI. Rattankhamfu, S. (2016). Building and Sustaining National ICT Education Agencies: Lessons from Thailand (Schoolnet Thailand).

LXXXII. Rumpagaporn, M. W. (2007). Students' critical thinking skills, attitudes to ICT and perceptions of ICT classroom learning environments under the ICT schools pilot project in Thailand (Doctoral dissertation).

LXXXIII. Saekow, A., & Samson, D. (2011, March). A study of e-learning readiness of Thailand's higher education comparing to the United States of America (USA)'s case. In 2011 3rd International Conference on Computer Research and Development (Vol. 2, pp. 287-291). IEEE.

LXXXIV. Sahay, S. (2001). Introduction to the special issue on IT and Health Care in Developing Countries. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 5, 1-6.

LXXXV. Saini, L., Jyoti, Kaur, H. (2017). Role of Cloud Computing in Education System. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 8(4), 345-347.

LXXXVI. Sansanwal, D. N. (2000). Information technology and higher education. University news, 38(46), 1-6.

LXXXVII. Shang, H. (2007). An exploratory study of e-mail application on FL writing performance. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(1), 79-96.

LXXXVIII. Sombuntham, S., & Theeraroungchaisri, A. (2006). Thailand cyber university: The strategic move to higher education reform. In Association of Pacific Rim Universities Distance Learning and Internet Conference, Tokyo.

LXXXIX. Soparat, S., Arnold, S., & Klaysom, S. (2015). The development of Thai learners’ key competencies by project-based learning using ICT. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 1(1), 11-22.

XC. Thai Consulate-General. (2015). News update: Developing Thai education and workforce for ASEAN. Thai Embassy website, Accessed May, 23, 2015.

XCI. The Nation. (2014). A mixture of IT solution may be the best way out of the One Tablet scheme. Accessed November, 10, 2015.

XCII. The National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, NECTEC. (2008). The Second Master Plan (2009-2012) of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

XCIII. The Natoma Group. Consultants in learning, technology and development. Rerieved from Accessed September, 24, 2019.

XCIV. Thuvasethakul, D., & Pooparadai, K. (2003). ICT Human Resource Development within Thailand ICT Policies Context. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Forum for Information Technology (2nd AFIT), Ulaabaatar, Mongolia (pp. 1-11).

XCV. Tinio, V. L. (2002). ICT in education: UN development programme. Accessed November, 12, 2014.

XCVI. Todd, R. W. (2019). Using a web-based simulation to elicit public input into ELT policy in Thailand. CALL-EJ, 20(1), 74-86.

XCVII. Tongkaw, A. (2013). Multi perspective integrations Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in higher education in developing countries: case study Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1467-1472.

XCVIII. Ulla, M. B., & Winitkun, D. (2018). In-service Teacher Training Program in Thailand: Teachers' Beliefs, Needs, and Challenges. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 26(3).

XCIX. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UIS. (2014). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education in Asia. A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia. Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

C. UNESCO. (2013). ICT in education, policy, infrastructure and ODA status in selected ASEAN countries. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia regional Bureau for Education.

CI. UNESCO. (2015). Qingdao declaration—International conference on ICT and post-2015 education. articles/qingdaodeclaration. Accessed Septtember, 21, 2015.

CII. UNESCO-IBE. (2013). Glossary of curriculum terminology. UNESCO International Bureau of Education, Geneva. Accessed October, 16, 2019.

CIII. Voogt, J. (2004). Consequences of ICT for aims, contents, processes, and environments of learning. In Curriculum landscapes and trends (pp. 217-236). Springer, Dordrecht.

CIV. Vrasidas, C., Zembylas, M., & Legaspi, J. M. B. (2004). EmpowerICT: eLearning for in-service Teacher Education and Support. International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, 12(2), 81-86.

CV. Wade, R. (2002). Bridging the digital divide: New route to development or new form of dependency? Global Governance, 8, 365-388.

CVI. Waitayangkoon, P. (2007). ICT professional development of teachers in Thailand: The lead-teacher model. ICT in Teacher Education: Case Studies from the Asia-Pacific Region, 110-115.

CVII. Walsham, G., Robey, D., & Sahay, S. (2007). Special issue on information systems in developing countries. MIS Quarterly, 31(2), 317-326.

CVIII. Watson, D.M. (2001). Pedagogy before Technology: Re-thinking the Relationship between ICT and Teaching. Education and Information Technologies, 6(4), 251-266.

CIX. Watts, M., & Lloyd, C. (2004). The use of innovative ICT in the active pursuit of literacy. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 50-58.

CX. Wei, C. W., Hung, I. C., Lee, L., & Chen, N. S. (2011). A joyful classroom learning system with robot learning companion for children to learn mathematics multiplication. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(2), 11-24.

CXI. Wilaisakoolyong, N. (2015, August). Using Cloud Computing Systems to Create Virtual Classroom Model for Thai-Nichi's Students. In 2015 5th International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

CXII. Williams, M., & Williams, J. (2007). A change management approach to evaluating ICT investment initiatives. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 20(1), 32-50.

CXIII. World Economic Forum, WEF. (2014). The global competitiveness report 2014-2015. Insight Report.

CXIV. Xiao, L.X. (2011). Communicative language teaching in Chinese university context: Beliefs and practice. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 34(2), 44-61.

CXV. Yang, S. C. (2009). A case study of technology-enhanced historical inquiry. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(2), 237-248.

CXVI. Zhang, J., Yang, J., Chang, M., & Chang, T. (2016). Towards a Critical Understanding to the Best Practices of ICT in K-12 Education in Global Context. In ICT in education in global context (pp. 1-17). Springer, Singapore.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Phra Suradet Wongfan. (2020). CHANGING TRENDS IN THAI EDUCATION: A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ICT-ENABLED LEARNING. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 6(7). Retrieved from