• Anmol PhD Scholar, PG Department of Psychology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, India-753004.


Reasons for addiction, Side effects of drugs, Biopsychosocial model, Treatment and Precautions


Substance abuse has become a global challenge all over the world. Although the youths are the most affected category, yet the menace of substance use is not limited to youths alone. An increasing trend in the use of substance among lonely people, especially the elderly, has also been reported.  The consumer generally neglects the side effects of such substance use in lieu of the short-term gains obtained from the effects of such illicit drugs. This paper reviews the various reasons for addiction and the side effects of substance abuse. An attempt has been made to prescribe solutions and also multiple precautions for counteracting substance use as well as abuse. The treatment methods, as well as reasons for addiction, are discussed in the context of the bio-psychosocial model to integrate the various factors that can trigger the use or relapse of habit substance use. The paper concludes with precautions that can be adopted to prevent the onset of substance use and abuse.


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How to Cite

Anmol. (2019). CAUSES, EFFECTS & TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE: A LITERATURE REVIEW. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 5(7). Retrieved from