• Dr. Urvashi Singh MDS, Department of Periodontology, G D Pol Foundation, YMT Dental College and Hospital, Institutional Area, Sector- 4, Kharghar-410210, Navi Mumbai
  • Dr. Rizwan M Sanadi Professor and Guide, Department of Periodontology, G D Pol Foundation, YMT Dental College and Hospital, Institutional Area, Sector- 4, Kharghar-410210, Navi Mumbai


Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, immunity


The human gut contains 10 times more bacteria than cells elsewhere in human body. The enormous biomass consists of over 400 known bacterial species that generate intense metabolic activity and are of key importance for human health. Resident microbiota actively contributes to host protection through: blocking of colonization by pathogens, development of cell structure and function, development of the immune system and modulation of inflammatory responses, commensal bacteria influence expression of mediators such as intracellular adhesion molecule I (ICAM-I), E-selectin, and Interleukin (IL-8), commensal bacteria also modulate immune responses and enhance cellular homeostatic mechanisms.1 This ecosystem gets disrupted when exposed to toxic substances in the form of polluted water and food as well as injudicious use of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance, with the emergence of multiple resistant strains, is an increasingly important global problem. This causes destruction of beneficial bacteria leaving behind  resistant, pathogenic bacteria.1   With the number of bacteria-resistant diseases on the rise and the length of time it takes to develop new antibiotics, it might be time to consider another alternative, for eg. the use of beneficial bacteria, the  'Probiotics', which stimulate health promoting indigenous flora and reverting back the change,  in the treatment of periodontal disease.2


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How to Cite

Dr. Urvashi Singh, & Dr. Rizwan M Sanadi. (2018). PROBIOTICS AND PREBIOTICS. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 4(9). Retrieved from