• Pranjal Ray M. Pharm, Pharmaceutics, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science
  • Dr. Bhupen Kalita Asstt. Professor, Pharmaceutics, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science


Polyphenols, Catechins, Compositions, Pharmacokinetics, Health benefits


Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia Sinesis and belonging to the family Theaceae and is used most popularly as beverage all over the world. The major components of Green tea which are responsible for the potential pharmacokinetic properties, Antioxidant and other Health benefits are Polyphenols. The major polyphenols in Green tea are Flavonoids. The Flavonoids present in Green tea is Catechins these are mainly four type, Epicatechin (EC), Epigallocatechin (EGC), Epicatechin gallate (ECG) and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The most significant active component is Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Human studies found that long term consumption of Green tea catechins could be beneficial against, Cardiovascular activity, as Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity, Anticancer properties, Dental caries and Diabetic properties etc. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.


Hu M. Commentary: bioavailability of flavonoids and polyphenols: call to arms. Mol. Pharm, 2007; 4: 803.

S. Ramos. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. J. Nutr. Biochem, 2007; 18, 427

S. B. Lotito & B. Frei, Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon. Free Radic. Biol. Med, 2006; 41, 1727

G. R. Beecher Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J. Nutr, 2003; 133, 3248S

P. Fresco, et al New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med. Res. Rev, 2006; 26, 747

R. Slimestad, et al.; J. Agric. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids. Food Chem, 2007; 55, 10067

B. Frei & J. V. Higdon. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies J. Nutr, 2003; 133, 3275S

M. Kampa, et al. Polyphenols and cancer cell growth. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol, 2007; 159, 79

S. Shankar, et al. Green tea polyphenols: biology and therapeutic implications in cancer. Front. Biosci, 2007; 12, 4881

R. J. Williams, et al. Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules. Free Radic. Biol. Med, 2004; 36, 838

M. Friedman. Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral, and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Mol. Nutr. Food Res, 2007; 51, 116

B. Halliwell. Dietary polyphenols: good, bad, or indifferent for your health. Cardiovasc. Res, 2007; 73, 341

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R. Beneficial effects of green tea: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 2006; 25:79-99.

Chacko SM, Thambi PT, Ku an R, Nishigaki I. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine, 2010; 5:13

Weisburger JH. Approaches for chronic disease prevention based on current understanding of underlying mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(6):1710S-1714S.

Yang C, Lambert JD, Ju J, Lu G, Sang S. Tea and cancer prevention: molecular mechanisms and human relevance. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007; 224: 265-273.

Du GJ, Zhang Z, Wen XD, Yu C, Calway T, et al. EpigallocatechinGallate (EGCG) is the most effective cancer chemopreventive polyphenol in green tea. Nutrients, 2012; 4: 1679-1691.

Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med. 1992; 21:334-350.

Sano M, Tabata M, Suzuki M, Degawa M, Miyase T, Maeda-Yamamoto M. Simultaneous determination of twelve tea catechins by highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Analyst, 2001; 126:816-820.

Khokhar S, Magnusdottir SGM. Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United Kingdom. J Agric Food Chem 2002, 50:565-570.

Fernandez PL, Martin MJ, Gonzalez AG, Pablos F: HPLC determination of catechins and caffeine in tea. Differentiation of green, black and instant teas. Analyst, 2000; 125:421-425.

Chen ZY, Zhu QY, Tsang D, Huang Y. Degradation of green tea catechins in tea drinks. J Agr Food Chem 2001; 49:477-482.

Sharma VK, A Bha acharya, A Kumar, HK Sharma. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, September 2007; 6 (3): 785-792.

Moghbel A, Farjzadeh A, Aghel N, Agheli H, Rais N. The Effect of Green Tea on Prevention of Mouth Bacterial Infection, Halitosis, and Plaque Formation on Teeth. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 2011; Volume 5(14).

Dr. Gupta D et al. Green Tea-Boon For Oral Health. Int. J.A.PS. BMS. Apr Jun, 2013;Vol.2.(2): 112-19.

Chacko SM, Thambi PT, Ku an R, Nishigaki I. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review. Chinese Medicine, 2010; 5:13

Goepp J. New Research on the Health Benefits of Green Tea.LE Magazine. h???? p:// 2008; Last accessed 15th Jan 2015.

Zhu, M.; Chen, Y.; Li, R.C. Pharmacokinetics and system linearity of tea catechins in rat. Xenobiotica, 2001; 31, 51–60.

Chow, H.H.; Cai, Y.; Hakim, I.A.; Crowell, J.A.; Shahi, F.; Brooks, C.A.; Dorr, R.T.; Hara, Y.; Alberts, D.S. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon. E in healthy individu- als. Clin. Cancer Res., 2003; 9, 3312-3319.

Renouf, M.; Redeuil, K.; Longet, K.; Marmet, C.; Dionisi, F.; Kussmann, M.; Williamson, G.; Nagy, K. Plasma pharmacokinetics of catechin metabolite 4'-O-Me-EGC in healthy humans. Eur. J. Nutr., 2011; 50, 575-580

El-Hady, D.A.; El-Maali, N.A. Determination of catechin isomers in human plasma subsequent to green tea ingestion using chiral capillary electrophoresis with a high-sensitivity cell. Talanta., 2008; 76, 138-145.

Wu, L.; Zhang, Q.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Lv, C.; Li, J.; Yuan, Y.; Yin, F.X. Pharmacokinetics and blood-brain barrier penetration of (+)- catechin and (-)-epicatechin in rats by microdialysis sampling coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with chemilumi-nescence detection. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012; 60, 9377-9783

Lin. L.C.; Wang, M.N.; Tseng, T.Y.; Sung, J.S.; Tsai, T.H. Pharmacokinetics of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in conscious and freely moving rats and its brain regional distribution. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 1517-1524.

Chow, H. H.; Cai, Y.; Alberts, D. S.; Hakim, I.; Dorr, R.; Shahi, F.; Crowell, J. A.; Yang, C. S.; Hara, Y. Phase I. Pharmacokinetic Study of Tea Polyphenols following Single-dose Administration of Epigallocatechin Gallate and Polyphenon E. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark Prev., 2001; 10, 53-58.

Feng, WY. Metabolism of green tea catechins: an overview. Curr. Drug Metab., 2006; 7, 755-809.

Chen, L.; Lee, M.J.; Li, H.; Yang, C.S. Absorption, distribution, elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metab, Dispos., 1997

Smith, A.J.; Kavuru, P.; Arora, K.K.; Kesani, S.; Tan, J.; Zaworotko, M.J.; Shytle, R.D. Crystal Engineering of Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) cocrystals and pharmacokinetic modulation in rats. Mol. Pharm., 2013; 10, 2948-2961.

Misaka, S.; Kawabe, K.; Onoue, S.; Werba, J.P.; Giroli, M.; Kimura, J.; Watanabe, H.; Yamada, S. Development of rapid and simultaneous quantitative method for green tea catechins on the bioanalytical study using UPLC/ESI-MS. Biomed. Chromatogr., 2013; 27, 1-6.

Pietta, P., Simonetti, P., Roggi, C., Brusamolino, A., Pellegrini, N., Maccarini, L. And Testolin, G., Dietary flavonoids and oxidative stress, in, Kumpulainen, J. T. and Salonen, J. T., (eds.), Proc. on the Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Atherosclerosis and Cancer Prevention, Cambridge, UK, 1996

Weisburger, J. H. Tea and health: The underlying mechanisms. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1999; 220: 271-5

Muramatsu, K., Fukuyo, M. and Hara, Y. Effect of green tea catechins on plasma cholesterol level in cholesterol-fed rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 1986; 32: 613-22

Hertog, M. G., Kromhout, D., C., A., Blackburn, H., Buzina, R., Fidanza, F., Giampaoli, S., Jansen, A., Menotti, A., Nedeljkovic, S., Pekkarinen, M., Simic, B. S., Toshima, H., Feskens, E. J. M., Hollman, P. C. H. and Katan, M. B. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch. Intern. Med., 1995; 155: 381-6

Hollman, P. C., Feskens, E. J. and Katan, M. B. Tea flavonols in cardiovascular disease and cancer epidemiology. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1999; 220: 198-202

Hofmann, C. S. and Sonenshein, G. E. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate induces apoptosis of proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of p53. Faseb. J., 2003; 17: 702-4

Vilma Armoskaite, Kristina Ramanauskiene, Audrius Maruska, Almantas Razukas, Audrone Dagilyte, Algirdas Baranauskas and Vitalis Briedis. The analysis of quality and antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. J. Med. Plant. Res, 2011; 5(5):811-816.

Barras A, Mezzetti A, Richard A, Lazzaroni S, Roux S, Melnyk P, Betbeder D, Monfi lliette-Dupont N. Formulation and characterization of polyphenolloaded lipid nanocapsules. Int J Pharm, 2009; 379:270-277.

Tahir Arifa and Moeen Rabia. Comparison of antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze against dental caries and detection of antibacterial components. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011; 5(18): 4504-4510.

Bureenok S, M Tamaki, Y Kawamoto and T Nakada. Additive effects of green tea on fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) and the fermentative quality of rhodesgrass silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci 2007; 20:920-924.

Kim KY, Davidson PM, Chung HT. Antibacterial activity in extracts of Camellia japonica L. Petals and its application to a model food system. J Food Prol, 2001; 64:1255-60. [50] Takabayashi F, Harada N, Yamada M, Murohisa B, Oguni I. Inhibitory effect of green tea catechins in combination with sucralfate on Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. J Gastroenterol, 2004; 39:61–63.

Okabe S, Ochiai Y, Aida M, Park K, Kim SJ, et al. Mechanistic aspects of green tea as a cancer preventive: effect of components on human stomach cancer cell lines. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1999; 90: 733-739.

Borrelli F, Capasso R, Russo A, Ernst E Systematic review: green tea and gastrointestinal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2004; 19: 497-510.

Okabe S, Suganuma M, Hayashi M, Sueoka E, Komori A, et al. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of human lung cancer cell line, PC-9, by tea polyphenols. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1997; 88: 639-643.

Nakachi K, Suemasu K, Suga K, Takeo T, Imai K, et al. Influence of drinking green tea on breast cancer malignancy among Japanese patients. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1998; 89: 254-261.

Mandel S, Weinreb, Amit T, Youdim MBH Cell signaling pathways in the neuroprotective actions of green tea polyphenol (-) -epigallocatechin-3- gallate: implications for neurodegerative diseases. Journal of Neurochemistry, 2004; 88: 1555-1569.

Crespy V, Williamson G. A review of the health effects of green tea catechins in in vivo animal models. J Nutr, 2004; 134: 3431S-3440S.

Sai K, Kai S, Umemura T, Tanimura A, Hasegawa R, et al. Protective effects of green tea on hepatotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and cell proliferation in the rat liver induced by repeated oral administration of 2-nitropropane. Food Chem Toxicol, 1998; 36: 1043-1051.

Conney AH. Induction of microsomal enzymes by foreign chemicals and carcinogenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: G. H. A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res, 1982; 42: 4875-4917.

Sohn OS, Surace A, Fiala ES, Richie JP Jr, Colosimo S, et al. Effects of green and black tea on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing systems in the male F344 rat. Xenobiotica, 1994; 24: 119-127.

Lin JK, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY. Cancer chemoprevention by tea polyphenols through mitotic signal transduction blockade. Biochem Pharmacol, 1999; 58: 911-915.

Chen HY, Yen GC. Possible mechanisms of antimutagens by various teas as judged by their effects on mutagenesis by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline and benzopyrene. Mutat Res, 1997; 393: 115-122.

Apostolides Z, Balentine DA, Harbowy ME, Hara Y, Weisburger JH. Inhibition of PhIP mutagenicity by catechins, and by theaflavins and gallate esters. Mutat Res, 1997; 389: 167-172.

Wu CD, Wei GX. Tea as a functional food for oral health. Nutrition, 2002; 18(5):443-4.

Moghbel A, Farjzadeh A, Aghel N, Agheli H, Rais N. The Effect of Green Tea on Prevention of Mouth Bacterial Infection, Halitosis, and Plaque Formation on Teeth. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 2011;Volume 5(14).

Dr. Gupta D et al. Green Tea-Boon For Oral Health. Int.J.A.PS. BMS. Apr Jun.,2013;Vol.2.(2): 112-19.

Waltner-Law ME, Wang XL, Law BK, Hall RK, Nawano M, Granner DK: Epigallocatecin gallate, a constituent of green tea, represses hepatic glucose production. J Biol Chem, 2002; 277:34933-34940.

Tsuneki H, Ishizuka M, Terasawa M, Wu JB, Sasaoka T, Kimura I. Effect of green tea on blood glucose levels and serum proteomic patterns in diabetic (db/db) mice and on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. BMC Pharmacol, 2004; 4:18-21.

Wu LY, Juan CC, Hwang LS, Hsu YP, Ho PH, Ho LT. Green tea supplementation ameliorates insulin resistance and increases glucose transporter IV content in a fructose-fed rat model. Eur J Nutr, 2004; 43:116-124.

Han MK, Epigallocatechin gallate, a constituent of green tea, suppresses cytokine-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage. Exp Mol Med., 2003; 35:136-139.

Song EK, Hur H, Han MK. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents autoimmune diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin in mice. Arch Pharm Res., 2003; 26:559-563.

Ullmann U, Haller J, Decourt JP, Girault N, Girault J, Richard-Caudron AS, Pineau B, Weber P. A single ascending dose study of epigallocatechin gallate in healthy volunteers. J Int Med Res, 2003; 31:88-101.

Sharma A, Zhou W. A stability study of green tea catechins during the biscuit making process. Food Chemistry, 2011; 126: 568-573.

Lu TM, Lee CC, Maud JL, Lin SD Quality and antioxidant property of green tea sponge cake. Food Chemistry, 2010; 119: 1090-1095.

Schmidt M, Schmitz HJ, Baumgart A, Guedon D, Netsch MI, Kreuter MH, Schmidlin CB, Schrenk D. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Food Chem Toxicol, 2005; 43:307-314.

Takabayashi F, Tahara S, Kanerko T, Harada N. Effect of green tea catechins on oxidative DNA damage of hamster pancreas and liver induced by Nnitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine and/or oxidized soybean oil. Biofactors, 2004; 21:335-337.

Sakamoto Y, Mikuriya H, Tayama K, Takahashi H, Nagasawa A, Yano N, Yuzawa K, Ogata A, Aoki N. Goitrogenic effects of green tea extract catechins by dietary administration in rats. Arch Toxicol, 2001; 75:591-596.

Bruneton J. Pharmacognosie. Phytochimie. Plantes Me’dicinales. Paris Technique Documentation-Lavoisier 2001.

Costa LM, Gouveia ST, Nobrega JA. Comparison of heating extraction procedures for Al, Ca, Mg and Mn in tea samples. Ann Sci, 2002; 18:313-318.

Hamdaoui MH, Chabchob S, Heidhili A. Iron bioavailability and weight gains to iron-deficient rats fed a commonly consumed Tunisian meal “bean seeds ragout” with or without beef and with green or black tea decoction. J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2003; 17:159-164.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Pranjal Ray, & Dr. Bhupen Kalita. (2017). GREEN TEA POLYPHEONOLS: A LITERATURE REVIEW . International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(6). Retrieved from