• Vaibhav Eknath Narawade Research Scholar, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur (Rajasthan)-313003
  • Uttam D. Kolekar Professor & Principal A.P. Shah Inst. of Technology,Thane, Maharashtra-400615


WSN network, delay, normalized packet loss, normalized queue sized, congestion level, Epsilon constraint, Adaptive Cuckoo Search, Sending rate


Congestion control is one of the most important challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The several scheme and techniques have been developed for improving performance in Wireless Network. Congestion has significant impact on network performance, Quality of Services (QoS) result in waste of energy of sensor nodes. To overcome this congestion issue, the paper proposed the optimized algorithm to detect and control the congestion in WSNs. The proposed approach formulated the fitness function with the aid of Epsilon parameter. The main idea is to detect the occurrence of congestion by incoming packets of sensor nodes. Once the congestion level is determined by virtual queue length it verifies congestion status. Occurrence of congestion fed into proposed optimized algorithm. The proposed approach is simple to implement as congestion occurs, it generate new solution by adjusting step size adaptively. With the aid of Epsilon parameter fitness function is formulated to find out optimal value. Finally proposed algorithm generates new fitness function to obtain the best solution where congestion free data transmitted in the network. The performance and result of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the parameters such as delay, normalized packet loss, normalized queue sized. The result shows that proposed algorithm attains minimum delay, minimum normalized packet loss and minimum queue sized to enhance the transmission efficiency.          


Garg, Priyank, and Reena Rani, "A survey on wireless sensor networks routing algorithms" , IJITKM Special Issue, ICFTEM, pp.38-42, 2014.

Pavlos Antoniu, Andreas Pitsillides, Tim Blackwell, AndriesEngelbrecht

Loizos Michael, " Congestion control in wireless sensor networks based on bird flocking behaviour", Computer Networks, vol. 57, pp. 1167–1191, 2013

Saurabh Jaiswal, Anamika Yadav, Fuzzy based adaptive congestion control in wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (2013) 433–438.

Zhi Liu, Yun Zhang, C.L. Philip Chen, Adaptive mechanism based congestion control for networked systems, Syst. Sci. 44 (3) (2013) 533–544.

Akbar Majidi, Hamid Mirvaziri, BDCC: backpressure routing and dynamic prioritization for congestion control in WMSNs, Comput. Netw. Inform. Secur. 5 (2014) 29–34.

Charalambos Sergiou, Vasos Vassiliou, Aristodemos Paphitis, Congestion control in wireless sensor networks through dynamic alternative path selection, Ad Hoc Networks Archive 11 (1) (2013) 257–272.

F. Ren, T. He, S. Das, et al, Traffic-aware dynamic routing to alleviate congestion in wireless sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Parall. Distrib. Syst. 22 (9) (2011) 1585–1599.

S. Ryu, C. Rump, C. Qiao, Advances in internet congestion control, IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 5 (2008) 28–39.

N. Thrimoorthy, T. Anuradha, A review on congestion control mechanism in wireless sensor networks, Eng. Res. Appl. 4 (11) (2014) 54–59.

Abbas Ali Rezaee, Mohammad Hossein Yaghmaee, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Amir Hossein Mohajerzadeh, HOCA: healthcare aware optimized congestion avoidance and control protocol for wireless sensor networks, Netw. Comput. Appl. 37 (2014) 216–228.

Frank Kelly, Fairness and stability of end-to-end congestion control, Eur. J. Contr. 9 (2–3) (2003) 159–176.

P. Gevros, J. Crowcroft, P. Kirstein, S. Bhatti, Congestion control mechanisms and the best effort service model, IEEE Network 15 (3) (2002) 16–26.

Akbar Majidi, Hamid Mirvaziri, "BDCC: Backpressure routing and dynamic prioritization for congestion control in WMSNs", Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 5, pp. 29-34, 2014.

C. Wang, K. Sohraby, B. Li, M. Daneshmand, and Y. Hu, “A survey of transport protocols for wireless sensor networks.” IEEE Network, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 34–40, 2006.

Vaibhav Narawade and Uttam D. Kolekar, " ACSRO: Adaptive cuckoo search based rate adjustment for optimized congestion avoidance and control in wireless sensor networks", Alexandria Engineering Journal, 9 November 2016.

Chieh-Yih Wan, Shane B. Eisenman, Andrew T. Campbell, "CODA: congestion detection and avoidance in sensor networks", In proceedings of Intertnational Conference on Embedded Networked sensor Systems, pp. 266-279, 2003.

R. Rejaie, M. Handley, D. Estrin, "RAP: An end-to-end rate-based congestion control mechanism for realtime streams in the Internet", in proceedings of International Conference on IEEE Compputer and Communication Societies, vol. 3, pp. 1337-1345, 1999.

Abbas Ali Rezaee, Mohammad HosseinYaghmaee, AmirMasoudRahmani, "COCM: Optimized Congestion Management Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks",Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 11–34, 2013.

R. Annie Uthra, S.V. Kasmir Raja, A. Jeyasekar, Anthony J. Lattanze, A probabilistic approach for predictive congestion control in wireless sensor networks, Zhejiang University- SCIENCE (Comput. Electr.) 15 (3) (2014) 187–199.

J. Kang, Y. Zhang, B. Nath, TARA: topology-aware resource adaptation to alleviate congestion in sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18 (7) (2007) 919–931.

P. Antoniou, A. Pitsillides, T. Blackwell, A. Engelbrecht, L. Michael d, Congestion control in wireless sensor networks based on bird flocking behaviour, ELSEVIER, Sci. Dir. Comput. Netw. 57 (5) (2013) 1167–1191.

Nazbanoo Farzaneh, Mohammad Hossein Yaghmaee IEEE Senior member, Mehdi Dehghan TakhtFooladi, DRCP: a dynamic resource control protocol for alleviating congestion in wireless sensor networks, in: 7th International Symposium on Telecommunication (IST 2014), 2014.

O. Banimelhem, S. Khasawneh, Grid-based multipath with congestion avoidance routing protocol in wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Network 10 (7) (2012) 1346–1361

Additional Files



How to Cite

Vaibhav Eknath Narawade, & Uttam D. Kolekar. (2017). CONGESTION AVOIDANCE AND CONTROL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS USING EPSILON CONSTRAINT BASED ADAPTIVE CUCKOO SEARCH. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(5). Retrieved from