• Dr. Manmeet Oberoi Professor cum Principal, Shah Satnam ji College of Education


Literacy, Women empowerment, Socio-economic development


Literacy is one of the important indicators of socio-economic and cultural development which can analyze the female progression and women’s status and autonomy in society. India has effective literacy rate of 74.04%. It is to be noted that 82.14% males and 65.46% females are literate which shows a large gender gap in literacy in 2011 census. It has been estimated that at the current rate of progress, India will attain universal literacy only until 2060. Among the Indian states, Kerala and then Mizoram have the highest literacy rate. Among the Union Territories, Lakshadweep has the highest literacy rate. Lowest male literacy rate is in Bihar while Rajasthan has lowest female literacy rate. The male and female literacy rate is compared in Punjab and it is observed that Punjabi female literacy is comparatively better as compared to national figures as well as from a number of states but despite tall claims of women empowerment not a single district of Punjab has higher female literacy rate than males.


Gender Statistics of Punjab 2012, online

Som,K.S. & Mishra, R.P. (2014) . Literacy and their differentials in West Bengal, International Journal of Science and Research, 3(6), 1537-1545.

Statistical database For literacy Provisional population and literacy 2001 Vol I (pp-48) Indian Adult Education Association.

Times of India,Nov.7,2011

Additional Files



How to Cite

Dr. Manmeet Oberoi. (2017). LITERACY AND GENDER GAP : STATUS AND CHALLENGES. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(3). Retrieved from