• Sarita Chaudhary Research Scholar (Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh)


Mindfulness, Meta-cognition, Meta-cognitive skill, meta-cognitive knowledge, Regulation of cognition, Meta-cognitive insight


Mindfulness is one of the best techniques for treating physical and psychological difficulties. Mindfulness means knowing what is happening while it is happening, no matter what it is. We can practice mindfulness in our everyday activities, such as walking, eating, writing, reading, cooking, washing the hands or dishes etc. Thich Nhat Hanh, a well-known Buddhist monk and author of several books on meditation, describes the practice of mindfulness as being aware of what one is doing while one is doing it. It is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well being by strengthening meta-cognitive skills and by changing schemas related to emotion, health and illness. Mindfulness involves the ability to notice and observe one’s own thoughts. A mindful individual maintains enough distance from his/her own thoughts to view them impartially, and this aspect of mindfulness makes it a meta-cognitive skill, involving cognition about cognition, which is the essential component of several skills like knowledge of cognition (meta-cognitive knowledge) and regulation of cognition. Mindfulness helps an individual to improve cognitive flexibility including meta-cognitive insight which refers to the development of greater intuitive understanding and awareness of one’s own thinking processes.


I. Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Shauna, S., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J.,et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7(3), 230–241. Retrieved on October 28, 2012 from http://www.personal.kent.edu/~dfresco/ mindfulness/Bishop_et_al.pdf.

II. Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation and understanding (pp. 65–116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

III. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848.

IV. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-development inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906-911.

V. Garland, E. L. (2007). The meaning of mindfulness: A second-order cybernetics of stress, metacognition, and coping. Complementary Health Practice Review, 12(1), 15-30.

VI. Greater Good Science center (2014). What is mindfulness? Greater Good: The science of a meaningful life, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved on October 26, 2014 from http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/topic/mindfulness/definition.

VII. Hanh, T.N. (1991). Peace is every step: The path of mindfulness in everyday life. New York: Bantam Books.

VIII. Helpguide.Org: A Trusted Non-Profit Resource (2014). Benefits of Mindfulness. Retrieved on October 26, 2014 from http://www.helpguide.org/harvard/benefits-of-mindfulness.htm.

IX. King, A. (1999). Transactive peer tutoring: Distributing cognition and metacognition. Educational Psychology Review, 10(1), 57-74.

X. Langer, E. (1993). A mindful education. Educational Psychologist, 28(1), 43-50.

XI. Lievesley, A. (2008). The impact of mindfulness practice on cognition and affective change in psychosis: A multiple baseline design. Empirical Paper. University of Southampton. Retrieved on July 4, 2012 from http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/161961/2.hasCoversheetVersion/Thesis_-_Alex_Lievesley.pdf.

XII. Oyan, S. (2006). Mindfulness meditation: Creative musical performance through awareness. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. Retrieved on October 22, 2012 from http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-03312006-164516/unrestricted/Oyan_dis.pdf.

XIII. Pressley, M., & McCormick, C. B. (1995). Advanced educational psychology: for educators, researchers, and policymakers. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.

XIV. Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26, 113–125.

XV. Thomas, D. C. (2006). Domain and development of cultural intelligence: The importance of mindfulness. Group &Organization Management, 31(1), 78-99.

XVI. Wikipedia (2012). Dyslexia. Retrieved on October 31, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Sarita Chaudhary. (2017). MINDFULNESS: A KEY TO IMPROVE METACOGNITIVE SKILLS. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(3). Retrieved from http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/706