• Mr. Reyaz Ahmad Shameem Sr. Assistant Professor in Education, Govt. Degree College Pattan


Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society. Historians link modernization to the processes of urbanization and industrialization and the spread of education. As Kendall (2007) notes, "Urbanization accompanied modernization and the rapid process of industrialization." In sociological critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalization. When modernization increases within a society, the individual becomes increasingly important, eventually replacing the family or community as the fundamental unit of society. The present study shall be an attempt to investigate and compare the attitude of rural and urban college girls towards modernization in district Srinagar.


I. Adair, V.A., Dixon, R.S., Moore, D.W. & Sutherland, C.M. (2000). “Bullying in New Zealand Secondary Schools”, New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 35, Pp. 207–221

II. Ammerman, N.T. Everyday Religion: Observing Modern Religious Lives; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007.

III. Arora, P.N., Bhartiya J.S &Arora, Asha, “Sex dif- ference in Modernization among Scheduled Caste adolescence, 82’nd Session of Indian Science Con- gress. Section of Psychology and Educational Sci- ences (Abstract) S.No. 46 P.50 1995

IV. Bahrami, A. &Tashk, H. (2001). “The relationship between Religious Orientation, Anxiety and Self- esteem”, Psychology magazine 24, 6th year, No.4, Pp. 336-347

V. Bhardwaj, Krishna.1995. Social Change in India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publication. [4] Cadge, W.; Levitt, P.; Smilde, D. De-Centering and Decentering: Thinking Concepts and Methods in the Sociological Study of Religion. J. Sci. Stud. Relig. 2011, 50, 439-447.

VI. Chakravarty, T.K. 1998. „Students Attitude towards Interact Marriage‟, Australian a. Journal of Sociology.

VII. Connell, J. A concept of modernization, South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 64, autumn.

VIII. Devendra, Agochiya. 2005. „Youth Development Programme at Cross-road‟, Journal a. of Youth Development. Vol.1. July-Dec, 2005

IX. Donahue, M.J. & Benson, P.L. (1995). “Religion and the Well-Being of Adolescents”, Journal of Social Issues, 51, Pp.145-160

X. Glanville, J. L.; Sikkink, D. & Hernandez, E. I. (2008). “Religious Involvement and Educational Outcomes: The Role of Social Capital and Extracurricular Participation”, Sociological Quarterly 49: Pp.105–137

XI. Hasanvand, A. M. &Rowshan, R. (2011). “The Role of Religious Attitudes and Religious Confrontation in Predicting Depression and Stress”, The 1st Conference of Iran’s Social Psychology, Tehran. Esfand, 2012

XII. Kalliath, R.P. 1988, A study of individual modernity and its relation to the educational background and the home environment. Ph. D., Edu. University of Bombay.

XIII. Muller, C. & Ellison, C. G. (2001). “Religious Involvement, Social Capital and Adolescents’ Academic Progress: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988”, Sociological Focus 34: Pp.155-183

XIV. Park, J.Z.; Ecklund, E.H. Negotiating Continuity: Family and Religious Socialization for Second- Generation Asian Americans. Sociol. Q. 2007, 48, 93-118.

XV. Singh, R.P.Tripathi, A.N.,& Ramjilal,1979, National psychological corporation,4/230,Kacheri Ghat, Agra.

XVI. Sodhi, T. S. and Suri, Aruna (2005). Philosophical and Sociological foundations of education, (3rd edition), 2005, p.342.

XVII. Stipek, D. & Miles, S. (2008). “Effects of Aggression on Achievement: Does Conflict with the Teacher makes it worse?”, Child Development, 79, Pp. 1721-1735

XVIII. Uludaga (2013). “The Influence of Aggression on Students’ Achievement: Evidence from Higher Education”, Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences 89, Pp. 954 – 958

Additional Files



How to Cite

Mr. Reyaz Ahmad Shameem. (2017). ATTITUDE TOWARDS MODERNIZATION-A STUDY OF RURAL AND URBAN COLLEGE GIRLS IN DISTRICT SRINAGAR. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(2). Retrieved from