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X. Berger, T., Chapin, J., Gerhardt, G., McFarland, D., Principe, J., Soussou, W., et al. (2007). International Assessment of Research and Development in Brain Computer interfaces. Baltimore: WTEC.
XI. Antara Bhattacharya, Dr. N. G. Bawane, S. M. Nirkhi, “Brain Computer Interface Using EEG Signals”, G.H.R.C.E, Nagpur For an early study, see J. Stroud, “The fine structure of psychological time,” in Information Theory in Psychology (1956).
XII. See A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger, “Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell's inequalities.” (Phys. Rev. Lett. 48: 91-94).
XIII. The classic study was done by Everett in 1957; see his article “Relative state formulation of quantum mechanics.” (Rev. Mod. Physics, 29: 454-462).
XIV. See Quantum Theory and Beyond (1971; E. Bastin, Ed.).
XV. Penrose has quantified the formulation in the following way. Objective reduction due to the quantum gravity properties of fundamental spacetime geometry occurs at a time t given by the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle E=h/t, in which E is the magnitude of superposition/separation (one graviton), h is Planck’s constant over 2π, and t is the time until reduction. The magnitude E is related to the gravitational self-energy of the superposition and may be calculated from the amount and distance of mass “separated from itself.”
XVI. The degree of polar/hydrophilic versus non-polar/hydrophobic is quantified by the Hildebrand solubility co-efficient lambda λ. Water, the most polar solvent, has a very high λ coefficient of 48 SI units; the non-polar benzene has a low λ equal to 18.7 SI units (Hildebrand Solubility Parameters: /MPa1/2 = 2.0455 x /cal 1/2cm-3/2 Standard Hildebrand values from Hansen, Journal of Paint Technology Vol. 39, No. 505, Feb 1967; SI Hildebrand values from Barton, Handbook of Solubility Parameters, CRC Press, 1983 and Crowley, et al., Journal of Paint TechnologyVol.38,No.496,May1966. http://sul-server-2.stanford.edu/byauth/burke/solpar/solpar2.html).
XVII. The benzene (or phenyl) ring is six carbons with 3 delocalizable carbon double bonds, i.e. three mobile electrons within a confined region which overall is electrically neutral (Figure 5). Electron location movements are described as electron cloud dipole fluctuations. Coupling between electron cloud dipoles, e.g. between neighboring benzenes, occurs via a type of Vander Waals force called the London force.
XVIII. When benzene and water are mixed, non-polar benzenes self-associate, pushed together by water—the hydrophobic effect—and attracting each other by London forces between electron cloud dipoles. Non-polar molecules aggregate into stable, low-lambda regions, e.g. oil droplets, shielded from polar interactions with environmental water. In biology, these effects drive protein folding and other forms of self-organization.
XIX. DNA and RNA have internal non-polar ‘pi electron stacks’ composed of hydrophobic regions of nucleic acids.
XX. For an earlier study, see H. Fröhlich, (1975): “The extraordinary dielectric properties of biological materials and the action of enzymes.”(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 72).
XXI. See S. Hameroff and R. Watt, (1982): “Information processing in microtubules.” (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 98).
XXII. One apparent problem with this approach is that Planck scale gravitational energies proposed to influence protein conformational dynamics are exceedingly tiny compared even to ambient energies, often expressed as kT (Boltzmann’s constant k times temperature T). The gravitational self-energy of one superpositioned tubulin is roughly 10-21 electron volts (eV) per tubulin, or 2 x 10-10 eV (10-28 joules) per 25 millisecond OR event. Ambient energy kT is approximately 10-4 eV (or 10-22 joules), 6 orders of magnitude greater than the gravitational self energy E. However the OR-induced 10-28 joules occur instantaneously. If we approximate the time interval to be within one Planck time of 10-43 seconds, each OR event delivers gravitational power (energy/time) equivalent to an instantaneous jab of 1013 watts (joules/sec), roughly 1 kilowatt per tubulin protein.
XXIII. Similarly, technological quantum computers will utilize superpositions of electrons or other small particles as qubits, and they too will have very small E, requiring extremely long decoherence-avoiding t for conscious moments. On the other hand, anesthetic-sensitive brain proteins have non-negligible mass whose conformational states are coupled to quantum electron states. For technological quantum computers to be conscious, according to Orch OR, they would require quantum electrons coupled to significant mass, e.g. perhaps in Fullerene-type structures.
XXIV. The idea that stars might have ‘minds’ of some sort was speculated on by J. B. S. Haldane in the 1930s: “It is not inconceivable that in such [stellar] systems resonance phenomena of the complexity of life and mind might occur. ... [I]t is conceivable that the interior of stars may shelter minds vastly superior to our own, though presumably incapable of communication with us.” (1934: 97). But he was far from the first; Plato, Aristotle, and several of the ancient Greeks argued that stars were ensouled.
XXV. The two authors differ on this. SH agrees with Penrose on non-random Platonic Planck scale information, whereas JP does not. David Bohm, incidentally, would clearly agree: “in a way, nature is alive, as Whitehead would say, all the way to the depths. And intelligent. Thus it is both mental and material, as we are...” (1982: 39).
XXVI. Aharonov Y., and Vaidman, L. (1990) Properties of a quantum system during the time interval between two measurements. Phys. Rev. A. 41:11.
XXVII. Aspect, A., Grangier, P., and Roger, G. (1982) Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsk-Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment: a new violation of Bell's inequalities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 48:91-
XXVIII. Bierman DJ, Scholte HS (2002) Anomalous anticipatory brain activation preceding exposure of emotional and neutral pictures.
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