• Bherlyn Joy M. Leccio, RN, MAN St. Paul University Manila


Self-directed Learning, Methodology, Teachers, Learner, Education


Currently, the academic institutions in most countries across the globe are striving their best to uplift the quality of education. Teachers and administrators are looking for variety of ways to make learning interesting and fulfilling which could lead to life-long learning. Similarly, various teaching strategies are being employed to enhance the level of understanding and critical thinking of the students.  One approach to meet this goal is through encouraging the students to become self-directed learners. Self-directed learning can be considered part of the teaching methodology for a long period of time. However, the effectiveness of self-directed learning approach is underestimated. As the teacher and learner plays a huge role in determining the utilization and  effectiveness of Self-directed learning.

       A review of literature shows that self-learning in general, are not only convenient for the teachers, but, in fact, more effective than traditional teaching and learning approach. Hence, this literature review aimed to present the historical underpinning of self-directed learning, the teachers' role in employing self-directed learning and the process on becoming a self-directed learners.


Ambrose, S., Bridges, M., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M., and Norman, M. (2010). How Learning Works: Seven ResearchBased Principles for Smart Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Bhat,P., Rajashekar, B. &Kamath, U. (2007). Perspectives on Self-Directed Learning — the Importance of Attitudes and Skills, Bioscience Education, 10:1, 1-3, DOI: 10.3108/beej.10.c3

Blondy, L.C. (2007). Evaluation and Application of Andragogical Assumptions to the Adult Online Learning Environment. Retrieved from

Brocket, R.G. (2006). Self-Directed Learning and the Paradox of Choice.International Journal of Self-directed Learning, Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 2006

Canipe, J. B. &Fogerson, D.L. (2006). The Literature of Self-Directed Learning: Dissertations. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 2006

Garisson, R. (1997). Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model.Article in Adult Education Quarterly, November 1997. DOI: 10.1177/074171369704800103

Gibbons, M. (2003). The Self-Directed Learning Handbook: Challenging Adolescent Students to Excel. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Hiemstra,R. (2011). Self-Directed Learning: Individualizing Instruction– Most Still Do It Wrong!

International Journal of Self-Directed Learning Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2011

Khiat, H. (2015). Academic performance and the practice of self-directed learning: The adult student perspective, Journal of Further and Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/0309877X.2015.1062849

Liang, L. J., & Wang, W. L. (2011). Promotion of Self-Directed Learning through Developmental Teaching Strategies.

Long, H.B. (2005). Skills for Self-Directed Learning. Retrieved from

Merriam, S.B. (2001). Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory. Retrieved from

Ramnarayan, K.& Hande, S.(2005). Thoughts on Self-Directed Learning in Medical Schools: Making Students More Responsible. Retrieved from

Roberson, D.N. (2005). Self-Directed Learning – Past and Present. Retrieved from

Scott, K.W.(2006). Self-Directed Learners’ Conceptof Selfas Learner: Congruous Autonomy. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 2006

Silén, C.&Uhlin, L. (2008) Self-directed learning – a learning issue for students and faculty!, Teaching in Higher Education, 13:4, 461-475, DOI: 10.1080/13562510802169756

Stockdale, S.L. & Brockett, R.G. (2011). Development of the PROSDLS: A Measure of SelfDirection in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model. Adult Education Quarterly May 2011vol. 61 no. 2 161-180. DOI: 10.1177/0741713610380447

Thornton, K. (2010). Supporting Self-Directed Learning: A Framework for Teachers. nguage Education in Asia, 2010, 1(1), 158-170.

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How to Cite

Bherlyn Joy M. Leccio, RN, MAN. (2016). SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING: TEACHER AND LEARNER. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 2(5). Retrieved from