• Oliver K. Manuel Climate and Solar Science Institute and Former NASA PI for Apollo, Univ. Missouri 833 Broadway, Cape Girardeau, MO 73701 USA


The source of energy in the core of the Sun is neutron repulsion, the same source of energy in cores of the uranium and plutonium atoms that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945, respectively.  The Sun is an ordinary star that produces and discards hydrogen generated by neutron-emission followed, in succession, by neutron-decay.  This conclusion is based on precise measurements of meteorites, planets, the Moon and the Sun during the space age and on precise atomic rest mass data.  It assumes that free neutrons decay spontaneously into hydrogen atoms and that solar energy arises from the conversion of nuclear rest mass (m) into solar energy (E).


I. Fred Hoyle, Home Is Where The Wind Blows: Chapters from a Cosmologist’s Life (University Science Books; First edition, 1994) 443 pp. See especially pages 153-154:

II. Paul Kazuo Kuroda, My Early Days at the Imperial University of Tokyo (autobiography, 1992) 69 pages:


III. Oliver K. Manuel, A Journey to the Core of the Sun -

a. Chapter 1: Coincidence (2013) 14 pages:

b. Chapter 2: Acceptance of Reality (2014) 21 pages:

c. Chapter 3: Nuclear Forces, Physical Size and Structure (2014) in progress

IV. BBC News, "Atomic plans returned to Japan," News Front Page, World Edition (3 Aug 2002)

V. Francis William Aston, “Mass spectra and isotopes,” Nobel Prize Lecture (12 December 1922): or


VI. A. Einstein, “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper” [“On the Electro-dynamics of Moving Bodies”] Annalen der Physik 17 (1905) 891.

VII. A. Einstein, “Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energie-gehalt abhängig?” [“Is the Inertia of a Body dependent on its Energy-Content?”] Annalen der Physik 18 (1905) 639.

VIII. James Chadwick, "Possible existence of the neutron," Nature 129 (3252), 312 (27 February 1932): doi:10.1038/129312a0

IX. J. Chadwick, "The existence of the neutron," Proceedings Royal Society London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 136 (830): 692-708 (1 June 1932):


X. J. K. TULI, Nuclear Wallet Cards, Sixth Edition, National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (2000) 74 pp.

XI. P. Eberhardt, J. Geiss, H. Graf, N. Grögler, M. D. Mendia, M. Mörgeli, H. Schwaller, A. Stettler, U. Krähenbühl, and H. R. von Gunten, “Trapped solar wind noble gases in Apollo 12 lunar fines 12001 and Apollo 11 breccia 10046,” Proceedings of the Third Lunar Science Conference 2, pages1821-1856 (March 1972):


XII. Oliver K. Manuel, “Neutron Repulsion,” The APEIRON Journal 19, 123-150 (2012):

XIII. O. Manuel, C. Bolon, A. Katragada, and M. Insall, “Attraction and repulsion of nucleons: Sources of stellar energy” Journal of Fusion Energy 19 93-98 (2001):

XIV. O. Manuel, C. Bolon, M. Zhong, “Nuclear systematics: III. The source of solar luminosity,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 252, 3-7 (2002):

XV. O. Manuel, E. Miller, A. Katragada, “Neutron repulsion confirmed as an energy source,” J. Fusion Energy 20, 197-201 (2002): or

XVI. Norman E. Holdren and Darlene C. Hoffman, "Spontaneous fission half-lives for ground state nuclides," Pure and Applied Chemistry 72, 1525-1562 (2000):

XVII. W. Baade and F. Zwicky, "Cosmic rays from super-novae," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 20, 259-263 (1934).

XVIII. O. K. Manuel, E. W. Hennecke and D. D. Sabu, “Xenon in carbonaceous chondrites,” Nature 240, 99-101 (1972):


XIX. R. S. Lewis, B. Srinivasan and E. Anders, “Host phase of a strange xenon component in Allende,” Science 190, 1251-1262 (1975):

XX. O. K. Manuel and D. D. Sabu, "Strange xenon, extinct super-heavy elements and the solar neutrino puzzle," Science 195, 208-209 (1977).

XXI. R. V. Ballad, L. L. Oliver, R. G. Downing and O. K. Manuel, "Isotopes of tellurium, xenon and krypton in the Allende meteorite retain record of nucleosynthesis," Nature 277, 615-620 (1979):


XXII. O. K. Manuel, "The enigma of helium and anomalous xenon," Icarus 41, 312-315 (1980):


XXIII. F. Begemann, “Isotopic abundance anomalies and the early solar system” in Origin and Evolution of the Elements, edited by N. Prantos, E. VangioniFlam and M. Cassé, M. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993) pp. 518-527.

XXIV. P. K. Kuroda and W. A. Myers, "Plutonium-244 fission xenon in the most primitive meteorites," Radiochimica Acta 64 167-174 (1994):

XXV. P. K. Kuroda and W. A. Myers, “Aluminum-26 in the early solar system”, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 211, 539-555 (1997).

XXVI. O. Manuel, K. Windler, A. Nolte, L. Johannes, J. Zirbel and D. Ragland, "Strange xenon in Jupiter," Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 238, 119-121 (1998): See 2001 analysis of xenon isotope data from Jupiter:

XXVII. E. M. Burbidge, G. R. Burbidge, W. A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle, “Synthesis of the elements in stars," Reviews of Modern Physics 29, 547-650 (1957): Free abstract and pdf file at: and

XXVIII. B. Srinivasan and E. Anders, “Noble gases in the Murchison meteorite: Possible relics of s-process nucleosynthesis,” Science 201, 51-56 (1978):

XXIX. W. A. Fowler, "Forward" in Cauldrons in the Cosmos: Nuclear Astrophysics by Claus E. Rolf and William S. Rodney, edited by David N. Schramm (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA, 1988) pp. xi-xii:

XXX. O. Manuel, W. A. Myers, Y. Singh and M. Pleess, "Solar abundance of elements from neutron-capture cross sections," Thirty-Sixth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, paper number 1033 (March 2005):

XXXI. O. K. Manuel and Golden Hwaung, "Solar abundances of the elements," Meteoritics 18, 209-222 (1983):

XXXII. A. O. Nier, "A re-determination of the relative abundances of the isotopes of neon, krypton, rubidium, xenon and mercury," Physical Review 79, 450-454 (1950):

XXXIII. U. Frick, "Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite," Proceedings of the Eighth (8th) Lunar Science Conference, pages 273-292 (1977):

XXXIV. J. H. Reynolds, U. Frick, J. M. Neil and D. L. Phinney, "Rare-gas-rich separates from carbonaceous chondrites," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42, 1775-1797 (1978):


XXXV. P. K. Kuroda and O. K. Manuel, “Mass fractionation and isotope anomalies in neon and xenon,” Nature 227, 1113-1116 (1970):


XXXVI. D. D. Sabu and O. K. Manuel, “Xenon record of the early solar system,” Nature 262, 28-32 (1976):


XXXVII. D. D. Sabu and O. K. Manuel, “Noble gas anomalies and synthesis of the chemical elements,” Meteoritics 15, 117-138 (1980):

XXXVIII. E. Anders and N. Grevesse, “Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar," Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 53, 197-214 (1989):

XXXIX. W. D. Harkins, “The evolution of the elements and the stability of complex atoms,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 39, 856-879 (1917).

XL. O. K. Manuel, “Noble gases in the Fayetteville meteorite,” Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 31, 2413-2431 (1967):

a. or


XLI. D. P. Richardson, "The Fayetteville, Arkansas meteorite," Popular Astronomy 43, 384 (1935): or


XLII. O. Manuel and Stig Friberg, “Composition of the solar interior: Information from isotope ratios,” Proceedings SOHO 12/GONG Conference on Local and Global Helioseismology: The Present and the Future, 27 Oct - 1 Nov 2002, Big Bear Lake, CA, U.S.A. (ESA SP-517, editor: Huguette Lacoste) pp. 345-348 (2003):

XLIII. D. D. Sabu and O. K. Manuel, "The neon alphabet game," Proceedings of the Eleventh Lunar & Planetary Science Conference 15, 879-899 (1980): and

XLIV. Peter Toth, "Is the Sun a pulsar?" Nature 270, 159-160 (1977):


XLV. V. A. Kotov, “A pulsar inside the Sun?” Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics 39, 811-814 (1996):


XLVI. Henrik Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen, "Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage—a missing link in solar-climate relationships, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 59, 1225–1232 (July 1997):


XLVII. J.H. Jenkins and E. Fischbach, “Perturbation of nuclear decay rates during the solar flare of 2006 December 13,” Astroparticle Physics 31, 407-411 (2009): Preprint:


XLVIII. I. G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, F. Ludlow, J. Beer, M. Friedrich, G. A. Kovaltsov, S. K. Solanki and L. Wacker, “The AD775 cosmic event revisited: The Sun is to blame,” Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters 552, L3 (2013):

XLIX. Karo Michaelian and Oliver K. Manuel, “Origin and evolution of life constraints on the solar model,” J. Modern Physics 2, 587-594 (2011):

L. Oliver K. Manuel, The Creator, Destroyer & Sustainer of Life, messages sent to the US Congressional Space Science & Technology Committee on 17, 18 July 2013 and 8 August 2013 (20 pages):

LI. P. K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements and the Oklo Phenomenon (Springer Publishing, December 1982), 165 pages:

LII. Max Planck, "The Essence of Matter," from a speech Dr. Planck presented in Florence, Italy in 1944, entitled “Das Wesen der Materie” (The Essence/Nature/Character of Matter) Quelle: Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797:

LIII. P. K. Kuroda, “On the nuclear physical stability of the uranium minerals,” J. Chem. Physics 25, 781 (1956); “On the infinite multiplication constant and the age of the uranium minerals,” J. Chem. Physics 25, 1256 (1956).

LIV. Oliver Manuel, "Why did our government deceive us?" one-page message to US Congressional Space Science & Technology Committee on 20 Dec 2013:

LV. Oliver K. Manuel, Climategate Sequel (4 Mar 2015) and Sequel II (15 Mar 2015) and

LVI. NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, releases isotope data from the 1995 Galileo Probe of Jupiter (video and 1998 C-SPAN tape 98-01-07-22-1)

LVII. Oliver K. Manuel, “Paul Kazuo Kuroda, a geochemist who saw the Beginning of the World in Hiroshima’s Destruction,” Geochemical Journal (submitted 11 April 2016)


LVIII. Christoffer Karoff, Mads Faurschou Knudsen, Peter De Cat, Alfio Bonanno, Alexandra Fogtmann-Schulz, Jianning Fu, Antonio Frasca, Fadil Inceoglu, Jesper Olsen, Yong Zhang, Yonghui Hou, Yuefei Wang, Jianrong Shi and Wei Zhang, “Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars,” Nature Communications 7, Article number 11058; doi: 10.1038/ncomms11058; Received 29 June 2015; Published 24 March 2016: The impact of super-solar-flares on the inhabitants of planet Earth are more fully explained in this 17 April 2016 Nordic Science news release: and this 25 April 2016 news report on the extremely low sunspot number in the current solar cycle #24:

LIX. Oliver K. Manuel, Barry W. Ninham, Stig E. Friberg, “Super-fluidity in the solar interior: Implications for solar eruptions and climate,” Journal of Fusion Energy 21, 193-198 (2002):


LX. Oliver K. Manuel, “Earth’s heat source – the Sun,” Energy and Environ-ment 20, 131-144 (2009):


LXI. Nicola Scafetta, “High resolution coherence analysis between planetary and climate oscillations,” Adv. Space Research 57, 2121-2135 (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2016.02.029;

LXII. S. Veretenenk and M. Ogurtso, “Cloud cover anomalies at middle latitudes: Links to troposphere dynamics and solar variability,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2016.04.003;


LXIII. Oliver K. Manuel, “Is the Universe Expanding?” The Journal of Cosmology 13, 4187-4190 (2011):


LXIV. A. R. Taylor and P. Jagannathan, "Alignments of Radio Galaxies in Deep Radio Imaging of ELAIS N1," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford University Press, 10 March 2016)


Additional Files



How to Cite

Oliver K. Manuel. (2016). SOLAR ENERGY. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 2(5). Retrieved from