• Dr. Durgesh Prasad Gupta Reader & HOD, Shakaya Tantra Govt. Ayurved College & Hospital Jabalpur M.P.
  • Dr. Manish Rai Lecturer, Sharer Rachana Govt. Ayurved College & Hospital Jabalpur M.P.
  • Dr. Ravi Narayan Prajapati Lecturer, swasthavritta and Yoga, Govt. Ayurved College & Hospital Jabalpur M.P.


Refractive error, Timira


Refractive errors are the common problem in today’s life style. When light rays pass from a medium of one density to a medium of a different density they are refracted or bent.So  before reaching the retina light rays pass successively through the cornea, Aqueous humour, Lens and vitreous humour which are all more dense than the air. There are 3 types of refractive error Myopia, Hypermetropia and Astigmatism. Timira is one such eye disease, which starts from Avyakta darshana and ends in complete loss of vision i.e. Linganasha.


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IV. Jogi Renu Basic Ophthalmology, Ed.II; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. New Delhi, 1999.

V. Khurana A.K. Ophthalmology, 2nd Edi. New Age International (P) Ltd. New Delhi.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Dr. Durgesh Prasad Gupta, Dr. Manish Rai, & Dr. Ravi Narayan Prajapati. (2022). REFRACTIVE ERRORS-A CONCEPTUAL VIEW. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 8(8). Retrieved from