• Raghavendra Rao M.V Department of Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • S.Jithender Kumar Naik Prof. Head, Department of Zoology, College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 5500007, TS, India.
  • Anusha.C.Pawar Asst. Prof. Department of Zoology, Nizam College, Hyderabad - 5500007, TS, India.
  • Raghunandan Reddy Librarian, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India,
  • D.Srinivasa Rao Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India
  • Mubasheer Ali Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Chennamchetty Vijay Kumar Consultant, MD Internal Medicine, Apollo Hospitals and Apollo Tele Health Services, Associate Professor Department of General Medicine, Shadan Medical College, India


Dimorphic fungus, Sabouraud's agar, Epidemiology, histoplasmosis, itraconazole


Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and the human disease they cause, collectively referred to as histoplasmosis, are prevalent worldwide. Histoplasmosis  is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The World Health Organization has officially recognised histoplasmosis as an AIDSdefining illness, a neglected tropical (fungal) disease, and an important cause of death in patients with advanced HIV disease. Histoplasmosis has an incredibly protean manifestation and is commonly misdiagnosed as tuberculosis or cancer. In the recent past, significant advancement has been achieved with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Dr Samuel Darling was first described Histoplasmosis in 1906.Histoplasma capsulatum  is a dimorphic fungus found in many parts of the world in soil enriched with bird  droppings of certain birds and bats .Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus.


I. Johnstone, Ronald B. (2017). "25. Mycoses and Algal infections". Weedon's Skin Pathology Essentials (2nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 452

II. Stenn F (February 1960). "Cave disease or speleonosis". Archives of Internal Medicine. 105 (2): 181–3. .

III. Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 674

IV. 4.Cotran RS, Kumar V, Fausto N, Robbins SL, Abbas AK (2005). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. St. Louis: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 754–5.

V. Couppie P, Aznar C, Carme B, et al. . American histoplasmosis in developing countries with a special focus on patients with HIV: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006;19(5):443–449.

VI. Nieto-Rios JF, Serna-Higuita LM, Guzman-Luna CE, et al. . Histoplasmosis in renal transplant patients in an endemic area at a reference hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Transplant Proc. 2014;46(9):3004–3009.

VII. Bahr NC, Antinori S, Wheat LJ, et al. . Histoplasmosis infections worldwide: thinking outside of the Ohio river valley. Curr Trop Med Rep. 2015;2(2):70–80. doi: 10.1007/s40475-015-0044-0

VIII. Randhawa HS, Gugnani HC.. Occurrence of histoplasmosis in the Indian Sub-continent: An Overview and Update. J Med Res Pract. 2018;7:71–83.

IX. Teixeira Mde M, Patan ´e JS, Taylor ML, G ´omez BL, Theodoro RC, de Hoog S, Engelthaler DM, Zancop ´e-Oliveira RM, Felipe MS, Barker BM, 2016. Worldwide phylogenetic distributions and population dynamics of the genus Histoplasma. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004732.

X. Myint T, Leedy N, Villacorta Cari E, Wheat LJ. HIV-associated histoplasmosis: Current perspectives. HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care. 2020;12:113-125. Available from: https://www.dovepress.com/ hiv-associated-histoplasmosis-currentperspectives-peer-reviewed-article-HIV

XI. Vergidis P, Avery RK, Wheat LJ, Dotson JL, Assi MA, Antoun SA, et al. Histoplasmosis complicating tumor necrosis factor–α blocker therapy: A retrospective analysis of 98 cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(3):409-417.

XII. Wheat LJ, et al. Histoplasmosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2016;30(1):207–27

XIII. Ariffin A, Jagpal SK, Johannes J, Nagella N. Infections. Le T, Khosa S, Pasnick S, Wang T, eds. ATS Review for the Pulmonary Boards. 1st ed. New York, NY: American Thoracic Society; 2015. 469-72

XIV. Ferguson-Paul K, Park C, Childress S, Arnold S, Ault B, Bagga B. Disseminated histoplasmosis in pediatric kidney transplant recipients-A report of six cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Transplant. 2018 Nov. 22 (7):e13274

XV. Tanveer F, Younas M, Johnson LB. Chronic progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in a renal transplant recipient. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2019 Mar. 23:53-54.

XVI. Deepe GS Jr. Outbreaks of histoplasmosis: The spores set sail. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Sep. 14 (9):e1007213.

XVII. Kauffman CA. Histoplasmosis: a clinical and laboratory update. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007 Jan. 20(1):115-32.

XVIII. Jazeela Fayyaz, Histoplasmosis,Medscape,2020

XIX. Hage CA, Wheat LJ, Loyd J, Allen SD, Blue D, Knox KS. Pulmonary histoplasmosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr. 29(2):151-65

XX. Raghavendra Rao MV1* , Abrar A Khan2 , Srinivasa Rao D3 , Dilip Mathai4 , Mohammad Khaleel5 , Mubasheer Ali, How Fungus Can Debilitate Your Immune System?, Journal of Clinical Immunology & Microbiology, Volume 2; Issue 1 (2021) | JCIM-2(10)-017 |

XXI. Lin JS, Huang JH, Hung LY, Wu SY, Wu‐Hsieh BA. Distinct roles of complement receptor 3, Dectin‐1, and sialic acids in murine macrophage interaction with Histoplasma yeast. J Leukocyte Biol. 2010;88(1):95-106.

XXII. ] Cáceres DH, Samayoa BE, Medina NG, Tobón AM, Guzmán BJ, Mercado D, et al. Multicenter validation of commercial antigenuria reagents to diagnose progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in people living with HIV/AIDS in two Latin American countries. The Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2018;56(6):e01959-17

XXIII. Patra S, Nimitha P, Kaul S, Valakkada J, Verma KK, Ramam M, et al. Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient presenting with severe pruritus. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2018;84:465-468

XXIV. Jawetz E, Melnick JL, Edelberg EA. A Lange medical book review of medical microbiology. 7th Ed.

XXV. Ivan Roitt M, Jonathan Brostoff, David Male K. Immunology. 2nd Ed.

XXVI. Philips CA, Augustine P, Kumar L, Mahadevan P. Addison’s darling crisis. Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology. 2017;60:612-613

XXVII. Pujari A, Rakheja V, Bajaj M, Sen S, Yadav B. Isolated conjunctival histoplasmosis in an elderly patient: A rare but important scenario. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2019;54:e15-e16

XXVIII. Zhang X, Gibson B Jr, Daly TM. 2013. Evaluation of commercially available reagents for diagnosis of histoplasmosis infection in immunocompromised patients. J Clin Microbiol 51:4095–4101. doi:10.1128/JCM.02298-13.

XXIX. . Zhang C, Lei GS, Lee CH, Hage CA. 2015. Evaluation of two new enzyme immunoassay reagents for diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a cohort of clinically characterized patients. Med Mycol 53:868–873. doi:10.1093/mmy/myv062.

XXX. Theel ES, Jespersen DJ, Harring J, Mandrekar J, Binnicker MJ. 2013. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigen from urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol 51:3555–3559. doi:10.1128/JCM.01868-13

XXXI. Campoy S, Adrio JL. Antifungals. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2017;133: 86-96.

XXXII. Kauffman CA. Histoplasmosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 2009;30(2):217-225

XXXIII. Manabe YC, Campbell JD, Sydnor E, Moore RD. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: 79 Treatment of Histoplasmosis DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.92984 Risk factors and treatment implications. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2007;46(4):456-462

XXXIV. Kiggundu R, Nabeta HW, Okia R, Rhein J, Lukande R. Unmasking histoplasmosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient recently started on antiretroviral therapy. Autopsy & Case Reports. 2016;6(4):27-33

XXXV. Passos L, Talhari C, Santos M, Ribeiro-Rodrigues R, Ferreira LC de L, Talhari S. Histoplasmosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 2011;86(4 Suppl 1): S168-S172

Additional Files



How to Cite

Raghavendra Rao M.V, S.Jithender Kumar Naik, Anusha.C.Pawar, Raghunandan Reddy, D.Srinivasa Rao, Mubasheer Ali, & Chennamchetty Vijay Kumar. (2022). HISTOPLASMOSIS INFECTION IN HUMAN—THE SILENT DISASTER. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 8(4). Retrieved from http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/2430