TRANSLATION MEDICINE AND BIOMARKERS; BENCH TO BEDSIDE — AN OVERVIEW

Raghavendra Rao M.V, Abrar A. Khan, Pamphil Igman, Surekha Bhat, Tiara Calvo Leon

Abstract


There is no clear definition of translational medicine; it means different things to different people. Here, we define translational medicine (also referred to as translational science) as a rapidly growing discipline in biomedical research that aims to expedite the discovery of new diagnostic tools and treatments by using a multi-disciplinary, highly collaborative approach. Often described as the practice of transferring scientific knowledge “from bench to bedside“ (B2B), translational medicine builds on fundamental research advances–studies of biological processes using cell cultures, for example, or animal models – and uses them to develop new therapies or medical procedures. Translation science is often described as an effort to carry scientific knowledge, "From bench to bedside." Translation medicine builds on necessary research advances studies of the biological process using cell cultures or animal models and uses them to develop therapies or medical procedures. The main feature of translation medicine is the bridging function between preclinical and clinical research. It aims at answering the single but tremendously important question. If a drug X works in rats, rabbits, and even monkeys, how likely will it be beneficial to humans? Historically, how did this simple and straightforward question, which naturally inherent to all drug development processes, become of primary relevance biochemical research? (1). The term “Bench to Bedside” is used to describe the process by which the results of the study done in the laboratory use to develop new ways to treat patients, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) dictionary. This term is not new. The idea that clinical and basic scientists could work at the interface between basic science and clinical medicine and lead to significant breakthroughs has existed for a long time (2). Every novel discovery begins with a burning question and evolves through a journey that starts with experiments in the laboratory. To translate laboratory research into a clinical application as a new methods of diagnosis, treatment, or prevention is the big challenge, and that is where translational research steps. The European Society defines translational research for Translational Medicine (EUSTM) as an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field supported by three main pillars: bench-side, bedside, and community (3). Despite tremendous efforts and the cloning of the entire genome, innovations at the patient level are becoming rare events and insufficiency in predicting human efficacy or safety of new drugs from early discovery and development work blamed for many failures. It is a complex science and needs careful development both as a science and concrete projects. The majority of translation research relies on preclinical animal models. However, an incredible number of examples of failed. There is no single ideal animal model of human disease conditions.

Keywords


From bench to bedside (B2B), Second translational block (T2) National Centre for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS), Biomarkers, Bioethics Genome

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