STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF CEPHALIC MUSCLES IN THE FISH CHANNA ORIENTALIS
Keywords:Study, Muscle, cephalic region, channa orientalis, Architecture
The present investigation shows that the muscles of the opercular region, the levator arecus palatine and dilator opercula are not well developed, due to air-breathing habits of fish. The frequent movements of operculum as seen in other fishes are reduced. Although the frequent opening and closing of the mouth is absent in this fish, the muscles of the adductor mandibulae are very well developed due to carnivorous habit which needs powerful muscles to crush the food. The eye muscles in Channa orientalis have similar pattern as found in majority of fishes.
Vetter B. (1878): Untersuch Zaur Vergl anatder Kiemenund-kiefmus-culature der fische, Theil II. Jena Zeitschr. F. Naturw, 12(3), 431-550.
Adams L. A. (1919), A memoir on the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in recent and fossil vertebrates Ann., N. Y. Acad. Sci., 51-56.
Shann E. W. (1921): The comparative mycology of the fish shoulder girdle and pector al fin of fishes. Trans R. Soc. Ednib, 52, 531-570.
Edwards L. F. (1926): “The protectile apparatus of the mouth of the catastomoid fishes, Anat., Rec., 33, 267.
Kestavan H. L. (1942-43), The evolution of the skull and cephalic muscles a comparative study of their development and adult morphology, Mem Aust., Mus., 8(1-63), 63-132.
Al-Hussaini A. H. (1949): “On functional morphology of the alimentary tract of some fish in relation to differences in their feeding habits. Anatomy and histology”, Q JI microsc., Sci. 90(2), 109-140.
Nursall J. R. (1956): The lateral musculature and the swimming of the fish Proc. Zool., Soc., Lond. 126, 127-143.
Nursall J. (1958): The caudal fin as a hydrofoil, Evolution 12(1), 116-120.
Saxena (1960): The cranial muscularature of a hilstream cyprinil fish Garra mullya (Sykes). Proc., Natn. Inst. Sci. India, 26(40), 176-188.
Munshi J. D. (1960): The structure of the gills of certain freshwater teleost, Ind. J. Zootomy 1(3), 135-174.
Nursall J. R. (1963): The caudal musculature of holopagrus guntheri gill (Perci forms : Lutjanidae) Can. J. Zool. 41, 865-880.
Dubale M. S. and E. Christian (1963-64): “Functional anatomy of the pelvic fins of certain Indian freshwater siluroids” J. Uni. Bombay, XXXII 54,55, 104-116.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Education and Research Journal (IERJ)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.