Dr Vandana Mehra, Sukhbir Kaur


The study was conducted to find out internet use in relation to gender and computer anxiety with different levels of internet self efficacy. Sample comprised of 400 adolescents of IXth class  (i.e. 200 males and 200 females) of Government Senior Secondary Schools of Chandigarh. Descriptive method was used. Results revealed that male adolescents exhibited better internet use as compared to female adolescents and significant difference among adolescents with low, moderate and high computer anxiety with respect to internet use was also found but no significant interaction was found among gender, internet self efficacy and computer anxiety of adolescents with respect to internet use. 

Full Text:



American Federation of Teachers (AFT) (2001). A Virtual revolution: Trends in the expansion of distance education obtained online at: pdf.

Azher, M., Behram, K. R., Salim, M., Bilal, M., Hussain, A., & Haseeb, M. (2014). The relationship between internet addiction and anxiety among students of University of Sargodha. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4 (1), 288-293. Retrieved on 29 May, 2016 from

Beller, M., & Or, E. (1998). The crossroads between life long learning and information technology: a challenge facing leading universities. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4 (2), obtained online at:

Benson, T. W. (1994). Electronic network resources for communication scholars. Communication Education, 43, 120.

Bimber, B (2000). Measuring the gender gap on the Internet. Social Science Quarterly, 81 (3), 868-876.

Bork, A. (2001).What is needed for effective learning on the Internet? Educational Technology and Societ, 4 (3) obtained online at

Cazan, A., Cocorada, E., & Maican, C. (2016). Computer anxiety and attitudes towards the computer and the internet with Romanian high school and university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 5. 258-267.

Cummings, J. A., Bonk, C. J., & Jacobs, F. R. (2002). Twenty-first century college syllabi options for online communication and interactivity. Internet and Higher Education, 4, 1–19.

Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2000). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use; Implications for pre-employment screening. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 5, 331-345. Retrieved on 30 Oct, 2015 from

Eastin, M. S., & LaRose, R. (2000). Internet self‐efficacy and the psychology of the digital divide. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 6 (1), 0-0. Retrieved on 1 June, 2016 from

Erdogan, Y. (2008). Exploring the relationships among internet usage, internet attitudes and loneliness of ataurkish adolescents. CyberPsychology and Behavior , 2 (2), 165-172. Retrieved on 1 March, 2013 from.

Heinssen, R.K., Glass, C.R., & Knight, L.A. (1987). Assessing computer anxiety: Development and validation of the Computer Anxiety Rating Scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 3, 49-59.Retrieved on 29 April,2013 from

Herdman, P. C. (1983). High tech anxiety. Management Focus, 30 (3), 29-31.

Howard, G. S., & Smith, D. R. (1986). Computer anxiety in management:Myth or reality? Communications of the ACM, 29 (7), 611-615.

Hsu, T., & Huang, L.C. (2006). Developing An Internet Self-Efficacy Scale of 2006 (ISE06). Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2000-2008. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Retrieved on 24 April, 2013 from

Jackson, L. A., Zhao, Y., Kolenic III, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Harold, R., & Von Eye, A. (2008). Race, gender, and information technology use: the new digital divide. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11 (4), 437-442. Retrieved on 24 May, 2016 from

Johnson, G. (2007). College student internet use:Convenience and amusement. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology , 33 (1), 45-52. Retrieved on 1 March, 2013 from

Joo, Y. J., Bong, M., and Choi, H. J. (2002). Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic self-efficacy, and Internet self-efficacy in Web based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48, 5-17.

Lubans, J. (1998).How first-year university students use and regard Internet resource. obtained online at:

Madell, D., & Muncer, S. (2004). Gender differences in the use of the internet by english secondary school children. Social Psychology of Education , 7 (2), 229-251. Retrieved on 24 Feb,2013 from

McGregor, E., & Bazi, F. (2001). Gender mainstreaming in science and technology. Zimbabwe: Commonwealth Press Office.

Oliver, R., & McLoughlin, C. (1999). Curriculum and learning-resources issues arising from the use of webbased course support systems. Ed-Media 99 Workshop. Retreived on 15 feb, 2018 from

Ryan, S. M. (1994). Uncle Sam online: government information on the Internet. Communication Education, 43, 151–158.

Shinde, M., & Patel, S. (2014). Co-Relation between problematic internet use and mental health in professional education students. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3 (2), 194-202. . Retrieved on 27 May, 2016 from

Torkzadeh, G., & Van Dyke, T. P. (2002). Effects of training on internet self-efficacyand computer user attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 18 (5), 479-494.

Torkzadeh, G., Chang, C. J., & Demirhan, D. (2006). A contingency model of computer and internet self-efficacy. Information & Management, 43 (4), 541-550.

Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Schouten, A. P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9 (5), 584-590. . Retrieved on 27 May, 2016 from

Vinaitheerthan, V., & Johnson, J.(2009). A study on use of computer among higher secondary students as related with their computer anxiety, internet attitude and self-efficacy in computer. I-Manager’s Journal on School Educational Technology, 5 (2). 43-51.

Wu, Y., & Tsai, C. (2006). University students internet attitudes and internet self efficacy:A study at three universities in Taiwan. CyberPsychology and Behavior , 9 (4), 136-143. Retrieved on 4 Feb, 2013 from

Yoon, H., Jang, Y., & Xie, B. (2016). Computer use and computer anxiety in older Korean Americans. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 35 (9), 1000-1010

Zaiane, O. R. (2001).Web usage mining for a better web-based learning environment.Retrieved on 21 May, 2017 from


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.