• Dr. W. Pradip Kumar Singh Head Department of Sociology, Liberal College, Luwangsangbam, Imphal East – 795002, Manipur, India


Smoking, tobacco, cancer, Imphal city, prevalence


Tobacco is an agricultural product and one of the most important commodities worldwide. Tobacco (Tambaku, Tamak or hidak mana in local name) is obtained from the leaves of two plant species of the genus Nicotiana, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica. It belongs to family Solanaceae. It is consumed in the form of smoking, chewing, snuffing or dipping (Mitra, 1997). Tobacco is a native plant of the America and there is evidence indicating the use of tobacco from pre-historic times (Chakaya, 2001). Tobacco plant was first introduced into Europe in 1556; from there it spread gradually to Africa, Asia and Australia. It is addictive as it contains an alkaloid called nicotine. In addition to nicotine, tobacco contains over 23 known carcinogens and more than 4000 chemicals (Jacobson, 1983). The danger of tobacco use is recognized and well documented for practically in all living creatures, including man, and should be avoided, yet this weed has been able to conceal it’s poison so that millions of men and women are made to believe that it is harmless (Kellog, 2002).

Tobacco has been recognized as the second major cause of death and one of the world’s major health hazards. It is the largest preventable cause of death in the world. It kills more people each year around the world than AIDS, drug abuse, road traffic accidents, murders and suicide combined (Mackay et al, 2002). About 5 million people worldwide die every year from tobacco related diseases. If current trend continues, there will be one death every three seconds by 2030 and a third of them in developing countries (WHO, 1999).


I. Ahmad K, Jafary F, Jehan I, Hatcher J, Khan AQ, Chaturvedi N, Jafar TH: Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Pakistan: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan; Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Jun; 12(3): 203-8.

II. Alam AY, Iqbal A, Mohamud KB, Laporte RE, Ahmed A, Nishtar S: Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan; BMC Public Health. 2008 Feb 7; 8:50.

III. Al-Kubaisy W, Abdullah NN, Al-Nuaimy H, Halawany G, Kurdy S: Epidemiological study on tobacco smoking among university students in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic; East Mediterr Health J. 2012 Jul;18(7):723-7.

IV. Al-Matubsi HY, Kanaan RA, Hamdan F, Salim M, Oriquat GA, Al Hanbali OA: Smoking practices in Jordanian people and their impact on semen quality and hormonal levels among adult men; Cent Eur J Public Health. 2011 Mar; 19(1):54-9.

V. Almeida L, Szklo A, Sampaio M, Souza M, Martins LF, Szklo M, Malta D, Caixeta R: Global Adult Tobacco Survey data as a tool to monitor the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) implementation: the Brazilian case; Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Jul; 9(7):2520-36.

VI. Amos A, Greaves L, Nichter M, Bloch M: Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice; Tob Control. 2012 Mar;21(2):236-43.

VII. Azevedo e Silva G, Valente JG, Malta DC: Trends in smoking among the adult population in Brazilian capitals: a data analysis of telephone surveys from 2006 to 2009; Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2011 Sep; 14, Suppl 1:103-14.

VIII. Baddoura R, Chidiac CW: Prevalence of tobacco use among the adult Lebanese population: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001; 7: 819-28.

IX. Basu M, Das P, Mitra S, Ghosh S, Pal R, Bagchi S:Role of family and peers in the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior of future physicians; J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Jul;3(3): 407-11.

X. Bell RA, Spangler JG, Quandt SA: Smokeless tobacco use among adults in the Southeast; South Med J. 2000 May; 93(5):456-62.

XI. Benjamins MR, Buck AC: Religion: a sociocultural predictor of health behaviors in Mexico;J Aging Health. 2008 Apr;20(3):290-305.

XII. Bhojani UM, Chander SJ, Devadasan N: Tobacco use and related factors among pre-university students in college in Bangalore, India; Natl Med J India. 2009 Nov-Dec; 22(6):294-7.

XIII. Chaturvedi HK, Phukan RK, Zoramtharga K, Hazarika NC, Mahanta J: Tobacco use in Mizoram, India: sociodemographic differences in pattern; Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998 Mar; 29(1):66-70.

XIV. Chomba E, Tshefu A, Onyamboko M, Kaseba-Sata C, Moore J, McClure EM, Moss N, Goco N, Bloch M, Goldenberg RL: Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy in two African countries: Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010; 89(4):531-9.

XV. Clark E, McCann TV: The influence of friends on smoking commencement and cessation in undergraduate nursing students: a survey; Contemp Nurse. 2008 Feb; 27(2):185-93.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Dr. W. Pradip Kumar Singh. (2018). SMOKING KILLS AND CHEWING TOBACCO CAUSES CANCER (A STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF TOBACCO USE IN IMPHAL CITY). International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 4(12). Retrieved from