Asieh Amini


Considering the extensive domain and potential of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in language teaching and learning, exerting cell phones seems inevitable. Mobile and portable devices are accounted as potentially considerable language learning aids.   Uprising applicability of English learning via MALL enriches dynamicity which is not accessible through traditional classrooms. MALL provides unlimited access to learn English. Language practioners and designers identify the strength and potentiality of mobile-learning as a novel approach or method for English learners and have incorporated it into both usual classes and distance learning milieu. The applicability and effectiveness of MALL had been a questionable issue. This review article intends to provide a general outline of investigations focusing on MALL with reference to impact of learners’ motivation. Regarding design of document analysis, this paper examines 28 MALL studies published between 2006 to 2018. As a follow-up, the findings showed that learners’ level of motivation significantly impacts mobile-learning and has a positive contribution. New research horizons to MALL include, its examination from cognitive and psychological perspectives, and integration with social-media with regard to English language learning have been provided.


Mobile assisted language learning, motivation, technology, document analysis, English Language Teaching

Full Text:



Ayati, M., & Sarani, H. (2012). Effects on motivation and attitude education via mobile phone in

English. Journal of Technology of Education, 7(11). 1321

Bauer, M. W. (2003). Classical content analysis. In M. W. Bauer, & G. Gaskell (Eds.),

Qualitative researching with text, image and sound (pp. 131–151). London: Sage Publication

Beatty, K., (2003). Teaching and researching computer assisted language learning. London;


Belanger, Y. (2005) ".Duke University iPod first year experience final evaluation report".

Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40(1), 21-40.

Bordbar, F. (2016). Effect of teaching via mobile accompanied by students’ psychological and

educational aspects. Journal of Educational Research, 6(1), 127-145.

Bottentuit Junior, Coutinho, J. B., & Pereira, C. (2008, November 160-163). The use of mobile

technologies by the Portugese academic community: An exploratory survey. In I. A. Sanchez,

P. Isaias (Eds.). IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning, Porto, Portugal.

Bozdoğan, D. (2015). MALL revisited: Current trends and pedagogical implications. Procedia-

Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 932-939.

Brown, E. (Ed.) "Mobile learning explorations at Stanford Learning Lab.


Cavus, N., & Ibrahim, D. (2009). M-Learning: An experiment in using SMS to support learning new

English language words. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 78–91.

Cheng, C. M., & Chung, C., (2007). Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based

on item response theory and learning memory cycle. Computers and Education, 51, 624-645.

Cheng, H., & Dörnyei, Z. (2007). The use of motivational strategies in language instruction: The

case of EFL teaching in Taiwan. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1,153–173

Chinnery, G. (2006). Going to the MALL; Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Language

Learning and Technology, 10(1), 9-16.

Cooney, G., & Keogh, K. A. (2007, October). Use of mobile phones for language learning and

assessment for learning, a pilot project. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual International

Conference on Mobile Learning, Melbourne, Australia.

DeWitt, D, Siraj, S. (2010) Design and development of a collaborative m- learning module for

secondary school science in Malaysia: Addressing learners’ needs of the use and perceptions

of technology. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 471-475.

Dias, J. (2002) CELL phones in the classroom: Boon or bane? Calling Japan, 10(2). 16-21

Dickey, R.J. (2001). Make it a conference call: An English conversation course by telephone in

South Korea. In L.E. Henrichsen (Ed.), Distance-learning programs (pp. 51-60). Alexandria,

VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.

Dörnyei, Z. (2000). Motivation in action: Towards a process‐oriented conceptualization of student

motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(4), 519-538.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual

review of applied linguistics, 21, 43-59.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ottó, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working

Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43–69.

Doughty, C. J., & Long, M. H. (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign

language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 7(3), 50-80.

Gay, G., Rieger, R., & Bennington, T. (2002). Using mobile computing to enhance field study. In T.

Koschmann, R. Hall & N. Miyake (Eds.), Carrying forward the conversation (pp. 507-528).

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gharibi, F., & Mohammadi, A., (2009, 284-293). Mobile learning through formal and informal

trainings. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of E-learning and Training,

E-learning center, Tehran: University of Science and Technology.

Green, B.A.,Collier, K.J., & Evans, N.(2001). "Teaching tomorrow's class today: English by

telephone and computer from Hawaii to Tonga." In L.E. Henrichsen (Ed.), Distance-learning

program (pp. 71–82). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language,


Gromik, A.N. (2012). Cell phone video recording feature as a language learning tool: A case study.

Computers and Education, 58, 223-230.

Hashim, K. F., Tan, F. B., & Rashid, A. (2015). Adult learners' intention to adopt mobile learning:

A motivational perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(2), 381-390.

Hew, F., K. (2009). Use of podcast in K-12 and higher education: A review of research topics and

methodologies. Education Technology and Research Development, 57(1), pp.333-357

Hsu, Y.-C., & Ching, Y.-H. (2015). A review of models and frameworks for designing mobile

learning experiences and environments. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 41(3),


Hwang, J. G., & Fang Chang, H., (2011). A formative assessment- based mobile learning approach

to improving the learning attitudes and achievement of students. Journal of Computers and

Education, 56, 1023-1031.

Jafarian, S., Saeidipour, B., Sarmadi, M., R., Farajollahi, M. (2015). Investigating the influence of

Electric literacy contetnt on student problem solving skill. Quarterly Journal of Research and

Panning in Higher Education, 21(3), 57-70.

Joseph, S. R., & Uther, M. (2009). Mobile devices for language learning: Multimedia approaches.

Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(01), 7-32.

Karasar, N. (2002). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi (11.Basim) Ankara:Pegem A yayinlari

Krashen, S. (2008). Language education: Past, present and future. RELC Journal, 39, 178-87.

Keegan, D (2003). The Future of Learning: From Learning to M-learning. Hagen:

Fernstudienferchung,Germany E-published version:

Knörzer, L., Brünken, R., & Park, B. (2016). Emotions and multimedia learning: the moderating

role of learner characteristics. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(6), 618-631.

Koole, M. L. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning:

Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 25-47). Edmonton, AB: AU Press,


Kukulska-Hulme, A. and Shield, L. (2006) Researching new and emerging technologies in

language education. Unpublished presentation to internal Open University, UK INTELLECT

research group.

Lakhal, S., Kechine, H. & Pascot, D.(2007). Evaluation of the effectiveness of podcasting in

teaching and learning. In G. Richards (ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in

Corporate Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 61816188) Chesapeake, VA:


Lee, C. H., Han, S. K. & Lee, S. H. (2009). Study on the analysis of effectiveness of the u-learning

research school. The Society of Korean Practical Arts Education, 15(2), 312–332.

Leow, C.K, Wan Yahaya, W.A.J. Samsudin, Z., (2014) . A Preliminary Investigation : Potential of

Implementing Mobile Learning to Foster Oral Communicative Skills among Chinese as

Foreign Language Learners. The Asian Conference on Language Learning, Osaka, Japan.


Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: Some fundamental considerations revisited.

International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29.

Lu, M. (2008). Effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone. Journal of Computer

Assisted Learning. 24, 515-525.

Luisa Vinci, M., Cucchi, D. (2007, 243-248). Possibilities of application of e-tools in education:

Mobile learning. MI Vinci Conference ICT for Language Learning, Italy.

Mahboobi, T., Zandi, B., Maleki, H., & Karimi, S., B. (2011). Effect of information technology and

communication on self-autonomy on students’ academic performance and creativity. Journal of

Management and Planning in Educational Management. 4(6), 8-31.

Naismith, L., Sharples, M., Vavoula, G., & Lonsdale, P. (2004). Literature review in mobile

technologies and learning (Futrurelab Series Report11). Bristol: Futurelab.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2018). Mobile‐Based micro‐Learning and Assessment: Impact

on learning performance and motivation of high school students. Journal of Computer Assisted

Learning, 109, 56-73.

Noels, K. A., Clement, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers' communicative style

and students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Modern Language Journal, 83, 23–34.

Panjaburee, P., Hwang, G. J., Triampo, W., & Shih, B. Y. (2010). A multi- expert approach for

developing testing and diagnostics systems based on the concept effect model. Computer and

Education. 55(2), 527-540.

Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and

contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers and Education, 46(3), 294-308.

Pishghadam, R. (2009). Language learning strategies in relation to gender and strategies for

learning AlbIran’s English language learners. Journal of the Faculty of Letters and Human

Science, University of Tabriz, 51(2), 49-23.

Power, T. & Shrestha, P., N. (2009). Is there a role of mobile technologies in open and distance

language learning ? An exploration in the context of Bangladesh. In 8th International

Language and Development Conference, 23-25 June 2009, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Rahimi, M., & Hosseini, F. (2011). The impact of computer-based activities on Iranian high-school

students’ attitudes towards computer-assisted language learning. Procedia Computer Science,

, 183-190.

Rau, P. L. P., Gao, Q., & Wu, L. M. (2008). Using mobile communication technology in education:

Motivation, pressure, and learning performance, Computers and Education, 50 (1), 1-22.

Rezaiee Rad, M., & Fallah, E. (2014). The study of the effect of the cell phone in learning on 4

motivation, self-awareness, and educational development of students in Arabic course.

in Curriculum Planning, 11(16), 1-13.

Rezaiee Rad, M., Nadri, K., Mohamadi Etergoleh, R. (2013). The effect of ADDIE designing

method with emphasizing on mobile learning on students self- conception, development

motivation and academic development in English course. Educational Administration Research

Quarterly, 4(15), 15-32

Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & de Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study

with fifth graders. Computers and Education, 57(1), 1334-1347.

Sarani, H. (2011). The effect of mobile phone on learning and achievement motivation in English

course student (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Birjand, Iran.

Sarani, H. & Ayati, M. (2014). The impact of mobile phones using (SMS) of learning English

vocabulary and the students’ attitude. Journal of knowledge and Research in Education, 2 (13),


Sarani, H., Ayati, M., & Naderi, F. (2014). Effect of English language teaching via mobile and

email on students’ learning and motivation. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher

Education. 3(20), 141-159.

Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R.

Andrews & C. Haythornth waite (Eds.), The Sage handbook of e-learning research (pp. 221-

. Sage: London.

Shield, L. & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From

content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. Recall, 20(3), 271–289.

Shohel, M., Mahruf, C., & Power, T. (2010). Introduction mobile technology for enhancing

teaching and learning to the English classroom in Bangladesh. Department of Education. The

Open University.

Siraj, S., & Saleh, M. P. (2003). Aplikasi Teknologi Dalam Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran

Peringkat Sekolah Menengah: Jangkaan Masa Depan. Journal Pendidikan, 23, 123-139.

Smith, C. D., Whiteley, H. E., & Smith, S. (1999). Using email for teaching. Computers and

Education, 33(1), 15-25.

Spolsky, B. (2000). Anniversary article. Language motivation revisited. Applied linguistics, 21(2), 157-169.

Stapa, S. H., & Izahar, M. M. (2010). Analysis of errors in subject-verb agreement among

Malaysian ESL learners. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 16(1).

Stockwell, G. (2008). Investigating learner preparedness for and usage patterns of mobile learning.

ReCALL, 20(3), 253-270.

Su, C. H., & Cheng, C. H. (2015). A mobile gamification learning system for improving the

learning motivation and achievements. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31(3), 268-286.

Tedick, D. J., & Walker, C. L. (1995). From theory to practice: How do we prepare teachers for

second language classrooms? Foreign Language Annals, 28(4), 499-517.

Traxler, J. (2010). What comes after pilots projects and initiatives? In G. Retta (Ed.) Mobile

learning: pilot projects and initiative (pp. 99-108). Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science Press.

Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of

Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 217–228.

Uzunboylu, H., & Ozdamli, F. (2011). Teacher perception for m‐learning: scale development and teachers' perceptions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 544-556.

Vinager, M. (2008). Fostering language learning via email: An English-Spanish exchange.

Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(5), 369-388.

Wu, W. H., Wu, Y. C. J., Chen, C. Y., Kao, H. Y., Lin, C. H., Huang, S. H. (2012). Review of

trends from mobile learning studies: A meta- analysis. Computers and Education, 59(2), 817-


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.