• Lawrence O. Flowers Ph.D., Livingstone College, 701 West Monroe Street, Salisbury, NC 28144 - United States


flipped classroom, social cognitive career theory, career development skills, workforce, STEMployable


Career development is a lifelong process encompassing many factors and stages essential to achieving occupational aspirations. In flipped classrooms, students watch instructional videos as homework and engage in concept exploration and problem-solving activities in class. A surge in the utilization of the flipped classroom strategy has resulted in an increase in pedagogical research in which investigators employ mixed methods research designs to explore student attitudes and learning outcomes. While many empirical studies have been done to clarify the effects of flipped classrooms on student learning in various disciplines including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of the flipped classroom model to enhance college students' career development skills. The purpose of this scalable pilot qualitative research study is to investigate STEM student perceptions of utilizing the flipped classroom approach to inculcate critical skills required to enter the workforce. Qualitative data analysis revealed that implementation of the flipped classroom format improved students' understanding and application of STEM job interview techniques. Results also demonstrate that over 90% of the respondents believe that flipped classroom methods would serve as an effective instructional strategy to enhance comprehension of additional career development skills.


Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom:

Definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research and Development,

, 1-14.

Al-Rawahi, N., & Al-Balushi, S. (2015). The effect of reflective science journal writing on

students' self-regulated learning strategies. International Journal of Environmental and

Science Education, 10, 367-379.

Anderson, L., Krathwohl, D., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P., Raths, J., &

Wittrock, M. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's

taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, NY: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2007). College learning for the new global

century: A report from the national leadership council for liberal education and America’s

promise. Washington, DC: AACU.

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2009). Remixing chemistry class: Two Colorado teachers make

vodcasts of their lecture to free up class time for hands-on activities. Learning and Leading

with Technology, 36, 22-27.

Canelas, D., Hill, J., & Novicki, A. (2017). Cooperative learning in organic chemistry increases

student assessment of learning gains in key transferable skills. Chemistry Education Research

and Practice, 18, 441-456.

Cheng, X., Ka Ho Lee, K., Chang, E., & Yang, X. (2017). The "flipped classroom" approach:

Stimulating positive learning attitudes and improving mastery of histology among medical

students. Anatomical Sciences Education, 10, 317-327.

Clark, R., Kaw, A., & Besterfield-Sacre, M. (2016). Comparing the effectiveness of blended,

semi-flipped, and flipped formats in an engineering numerical methods course. Advances in

Engineering Education, 5, 1-38.

Clark, R., Threeton, M., & Ewing, J. (2010). The potential of experiential learning models and

practices in career and technical education and career and technical teacher education.

Journal of Career and Technical Education, 25, 46-62.

Eichler, J., & Peeples, J. (2016). Flipped classroom modules for large enrollment general

chemistry courses: A low barrier approach to increase active learning and improve student

grades. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 17, 197-208.

Entezari, M., & Javdan, M. (2016). Active learning and flipped classroom, hand in hand

approach to improve students learning in human anatomy and physiology. International

Journal of Higher Education, 5, 222-231.

Flowers, L. (2017). Integrating STEMployable skills at historically Black colleges and

universities. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 34, 24.

Flowers, L. O., & Flowers, L. A. (2013). Online teaching strategies to promote career

management skills in STEM disciplines. Online Classroom, 5.

Herreid, C., & Schiller, N. (2013). Case study: Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal

of College Science Teaching, 42, 62-67.

Heyborne, W., & Perrett, J. (2016). To flip or not to flip? Analysis of a flipped classroom

pedagogy in a general biology course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 45, 31-37.

Langdon, D., McKittrick, G., Beede, D., Khan, B., & Doms, M. (2011). STEM: Good jobs now

and for the future (ESA Issue Brief #03-11). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of


Lent, R., Brown, S., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career

and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79-122.

Love, B., Hodge, A., Corritore, C., & Ernst, D. (2015). Inquiry-based learning and the flipped

classroom model. PRIMUS, 25, 745-762.

McLean, S., Attardi, S., Faden, L., & Goldszmidt, M. (2016). Flipped classrooms and student

learning: Not just surface gains. Advances in Physiology Education, 40, 47-55.

National Career Development Association. (2009). National career development guidelines

framework. Broken Arrow, OK: NCDA.

Ojennus, D. (2016). Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 44, 20-27.

Patrick, L., Howell, L., & Wischusen, W. (2016). Perceptions of active learning between faculty

and undergraduates: Differing views among departments. Journal of STEM Education:

Innovations and Research, 17, 55-63.

Prud’homme-Généreux, A., Schiller, N., Wild, J., & Herreid, C. (2017). Case study: Guidelines

for producing videos to accompany flipped cases. Journal of College Science Teaching, 46,


Reddan, G. (2008). The benefits of job-search seminars and mock interviews in a work

experience course. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 9, 113-127.

Ryan, G., & Bernard, H. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15, 85-109.

Schmidt, S., & Ralph, D. (2016). The flipped classroom: A twist on teaching. Contemporary

Issues in Education Research, 9, 1-6.

Siegle, D. (2014). Technology: Differentiating instruction by flipping the classroom. Gifted

Child Today, 37, 51-55.

Stanford, J., Rocheleau, S., Smith, K., & Mohan, J. (2017). Early undergraduate research

experiences lead to similar learning gains for STEM and non-STEM undergraduates. Studies

in Higher Education, 42, 115-129.

Super, D. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown & L.

Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary approaches to

practice (pp. 197–261). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Lawrence O. Flowers. (2018). INCORPORATING CAREER DEVELOPMENT SKILLS INTO THE STEM CLASSROOM WITH FLIPPED METHODS. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 4(9). Retrieved from