Vivek Kumar Stephen, Dr. Prem Prabha Singh


The purpose of the study was to determine study of academy achievement of government and non government primary school students in relation to reinforcement. The study employed a Mixed Methods design in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The study has targeted the students from public and private schools students of rural and urban area of the Allahabad district. Data was collected by using check-lists and interview schedules. Qualitative data was analyzed by using the thematic and content analysis such as Cronbach’s Alpha. The study reported on the use of praise, tangible items such as games and money, social, activity and token one were also moderately often used by the teachers. These terms also used in both form of reinforcement such as positive and negative reinforcement. The participants also used both Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement schedules. The purpose of this study was also to determine the effect of positive and negative reinforcement in the form of rewards on the achievement of primary students' end of the academic achievement. The study was conducted on 500 students of primary schools in Allahabad district. The researcher collected the students' grades for four weeks during which positive reinforcements in the form of rewards were not used and the grades for four weeks during which the students received positive reinforcements in the form of rewards ever time the student earned a grade of ninety-two or above. The eight week study showed significant improvement in the grades of the students when they received positive reinforcement in the form of rewards than when the same students did not receive rewards. The implications of the study is that positive reinforcement can be used to obtain desired result that a teacher, or parent seeks for a student to achieve; and that when used correctly, positive reinforcement is very effective. The study recommends that, schools should enhance reinforcement programs which have long term effect. Moreover, teachers should deepen their knowledge on reinforcement programs for academic success of students.


Reinforcement, secondary schools, academic performance, Allahabad

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