IDENTIFICATION OF PENCIL-USING SKILLS OF CHILDREN AGED 36-66 MONTHS

Müge YURTSEVER KILIÇGÜN, Ayşe KILIÇKAYA

Abstract


The aim of the current study was to identify pencil-using skills of the children aged 36-66 months. The sample of the study was consisted of 600 children who were attended preschool institutions. As data collection tools; “Observation form for pencil-using skills”, “goniometer” to identify positions of paper, sitting, shoulder, elbow, arm and wrist and “hand dynamometer” and “finger dynamometer” to measure hand-grip strength and compressive strength of fingers were used. Pencil-using skills were assessed under the titles of hand-preference, positions of paper, sitting, shoulder, elbow, arm and wrist, pencil-using skills and pencil-grip point, the number of the pencil-gripping fingers, position of thumb and flexion angle of index finger. According to the research findings; hand-preference, positions of paper, sitting, shoulder, elbow, arm and wrist, pencil-using skills and pencil-grip point, the number of the pencil-gripping fingers did not differ significantly in terms of gender whereas position of thumb and flexion angle of index finger was significantly different on behalf of girls. Positions of paper, sitting, shoulder, elbow, arm and wrist, pencil-using skills and pencil-grip point, position of thumb and flexion angle of index finger did not differ significantly in terms of age whereas the number of the pencil-gripping fingers was significantly different on behalf of children aged 49-60 months. Hand-grip strength and compressive strength of fingers of the children differed significantly on behalf of boys in terms of gender and those aged 61-66 months in terms of age.

Keywords


Hand-grip strength, compressive strength of fingers, age, gender, early childhood.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akyol, H. (2007): Türkçe ilk okuma yazma öğretimi, Pegem A Yayınları, Ankara.

Alisinanoğlu, F., & Şimşek, O. (2012). Investigation of the effects of writing and reading readiness studies on the writing preparation skills of pre-school children. Pegem Journal of Educaiton and Instruction, 2(2), p. 1-14.

Amundson, S. J., & Weil, M. (1992): Handwriting: evaluation and intervention in school settings, in: Development of hand skills in the child, J.Case-Smith & C.Pehoski (eds.), Amer. Occupational Therapy Assn, USA, p. 63-78.

Bay, D. N., Altun, S. A., & Çetin, O. S. (2014). Teacher views on reading and writing preparation studies. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1), p. 244-263.

Christensen, L. B., Johnson, B., & Turner, L. A. (2015): Araştırma yöntemleri desen ve analiz, A. Aypar (trans. ed.), Pegem, Ankara.

Croutch, B. (1976): Handwriting and correct posture, J. Arena (ed.), Academic Therapy Publications, USA.

Dennis, J. L., & Swinth, Y. (2001). Pencil grasp and children’s handwriting legibility during different length writing tasks. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, p. 175-183.

Duran, E. (2013). The evaluation of the 60-66 months old primary school students’ personal self-care and initial reading and writing skills according to teachers’ views. International Journal of Social Science, 6(2), p. 1075-1085.

Faber Castell (2015): Was noch wichtig ist, available at http://www.faber-castell.de/spielen-lernen/kindgerechte-produkte/schreibenlernen-mit-system/was-noch-wichtig-ist, accessed 20 January 2015.

Greer, T., & Lockman, J. J. (1998). Using writing instruments: invariances in young children and adults. Child Development, 69(4), p. 888-902.

Hogrel, J. Y. (2015). Grip strength measured by high precision dynamometry in healthy subjects from 5 to 80 years. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 16(139), p. 1-11.

Johnston, D. W., Nicholls, M. E., Shah, M., & Shields, M. A. (2009). Nature’s experiment? Handedness and early childhood development. Demography, 46(2), p. 281-301.

Kılıçgün Yurtsever, M., & Kılıçkaya, A. (2015): Kalem kullanmayı öğreniyorum. Anne babalar ve öğretmenler için el kitabı, Ege Basımevi, İstanbul.

Koziatek, S. M., & Powell, N. J. (2003). Pencil grips, legibility and speed of fourth-graders' writing in cursive. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(3), p. 284-288.

Lafond, D., Descarreaux, M., Normand, M. C., & Harrison, D. E. (2007). Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies, 15(1), p. 1-7.

Lee-Valkov, P. M., Aaron, D. H., Eladoumikdachi, F., Thornby, J., & Netscher, D. T. (2003). Measuring normal hand dexterity values in 3-, 4- and 5- year old children and their relationship with grip and pinch strength. Journal of Hand Therapy, 16, p. 22-28.

Marschall M., Harrington A. C., & Steele J. R. (1995). Effect of work station design on sitting posture in young children. Ergonomics, 38(9), p. 1932-1940.

McQuiddy, V. A., Scheerer, C. R., Lavalley, R., McGrath, T., & Lin, L. (2015). Normative values for grip and pinch strength for 6-to 19-year-olds. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(9), p. 1627-1633.

MEB (2013): MEB Okul öncesi eğitim programı, available at http://tegm.meb.gov.tr/dosya/okuloncesi/ooproram.pdf, accessed 15 January 2015.

Mehrotra, S., & Sinha, (2012). A sex related difference in handedness. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(9), p. 1-4.

Ministry of Education (2008): Teaching handwriting, Wellington, New Zealand.

Nutbrown, C. (1994): Threads of thinking, Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd, Liverpool.

Polat Unutkan, O. (2003): Marmara primary education readiness scale development and standardization (Unpublished doctoral thesis), Marmara University Instutiton of Educaiton Sciences, İstanbul.

Polat, Ö. (2010a): Okul öncesinde ilköğretime hazırlık etkinlikleri, İlkadım Yayınevi, İstanbul.

Polat, Ö. (2010b): Okul öncesi eğitim programlarında ilköğretime hazırlık, in: İlköğretime hazırlık ve ilköğretim programları, A. Oktay (ed.), Morpa, İstanbul, p. 63-84.

Schwellnus, H., Carnahan, H., Kushki, A., Polatajko, H., Missiuna, C., & Chau, T. (2012). Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting after a 10-minutes copy task in Grade 4 children. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 59, p. 180-187.

Schwellnus, H., Carnahan, H., Kushki, A., Polatajko, H., Missiuna, C., & Chau, T. (2013). Writing forces associated with four pencil grasp patterns in Grade 4 children. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), p. 218-227.

Selin, A. S. (2003): Pencil grip: a descriptive model and four empirical studies, Finland Åbo Akademi, available at http://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/4108, accessed 12 December 2014.

Smith-Zuzovsky, N., & Exner, C. E. (2004). The effect of seated positioning quality on typical 6-and 7-year-old children’s object manipulation skills. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58(4), p. 380-388.

Surrey, L.R., Hodson, J., Robinson, E., Schmidt, S., Schulhof, J., Stoll, L., & Wilson-Diekhoff, N. (2001). Pinch strength norms for 5-to12-year-olds. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 21(1), p. 37-49.

Svensson, E., Waling, K., & Hager-Ross, C. (2008). Grip strength in children: test–retest reliability using grippit. Acta Pædiatrica, 97(9), p. 1226-1231.

Temur, T. (2011). Description of Primary Education 1st Grade Students’ Forms of Holding a Pencil as well as Their Grip and Compression Strengths. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(4), p. 2189-2205.

Temur, T., Aksoy, C. C., & Tabak, H. (2011). An evaluation of the first grade elementary student’s writing speed and errors with regard to pencil gripping poınt, sitting posture and paper position. National Education, 191, p. 24-37.

Troussier, B. (1999). Comparative study of two different kinds of school furniture among children. Ergonomics, 42(3), p. 516-526.

Tseng, M. H. (1998). Development of pencil grip position in preschool children. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 18(4), p. 207-224.

Tseng, M. H., & Hsueh, I. (1997). Performance of school‐aged children on a Chinese handwriting speed test. Occupational Therapy International, 4(4), p. 294-303.

Yangin, B. (2007). The degree of readiness for writing education of six year olds in pre-school education. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 32, p. 294-305.

Yıldız, M., & Öztürk, S. (2013). Investigating handwriting skills of Turkish students studying in the Germany elemantary school (grundschule): case of stuttgart. Zeitschrift fur die Welt der Turken/Journal of World of Turks, 5(2), p. 139-155.

Yim, S. Y., Cho, J. R., & Lee, İ. Y. (2003). Normative data and developmental characteristics of hand function for elementary school children in Suwon area of Korea: grip, pinch and dexterity study. Journal Korean Medical Sciences, 18, p. 552-558.

Yurdugül, H. (2005): Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarından kapsam geçerliği için kapsam geçerlik indekslerinin kullanılması, XIV. Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, available at http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~yurdugul/3/indir/PamukkaleBildiri.pdf, accessed 10 October 2014.

Zaner, C. P. (1915): The arm movement method of rapid writing, Zaner & Bloser Co., Columbus, Ohio.

Ziviani, J., & Elkins, J. (1986). Effect of pencil grip on handwriting speed and legibility. Educational Review, 38(3), p. 247-257.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2018 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH JOURNAL