POLITICAL PART DESHMUKHS AND DESHPANDES UNDER THE HYDERABAD STATE

Panasa Adinarayana

Abstract


The socio-economic life of the people of Hyderabad and especially in Telangana was the unbridled feudal exploitation that persisted till, the beginning of the Telangana armed peasant struggle. The gradual separation of Hyderabad from the Mughal Empire was accomplished before the death of the first Nizam in 1724 A.D.It is pertinent here to take a brief look at the feudal nature of agrarian social relations in Telangana region.The basic feature that dominated the socio-economic life of the people of Hyderabad and especially in Telangana was the unbridled feudal exploitation that persisted till, the beginning of the Telangana armed peasant struggle. Out of the 53,000,000 acres in the whole of Hyderabad state about   30,000,000   acres   i.e.   about   60   percent were under Governmental land revenue system called Diwani  or  Khasla  area, about 15,000,000 acres i.e. about 30 percent were under the Jagirdari system, and about 10 percent as the Nizam's own  direct estate i.e. sarf-e-khas system.

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References


. Sundarayya, Telangana People's struggle and its lessons.Calcutta, 1972, pp. 9-10.

. Qureshi. A. The economic development of Hyderabad. Vol. 1 (rural economy), Bombay, orient, 1949 pp.112-118.

. Sundarayya, P. Telangana..., p.10.

. Quresh, A. 1. 1947. The economic pp. 72-73.

. Ibid., p. 73.

. Labour census report. 1940, pp.34-35. HEH the Nizam.

. Vetti System: The vetti system (forced labour and exactions) is generally taken to be confined to tribal areas or some of the most backward social communities in other areas. But in Telangana vetti system was an all-pervasive social phenomenon affecting all classes of people, in varying degrees. Each harijan family had to send one man from the family to do vetti. In a small hamlet (palle) each house will send one man. Their daily job consisted of household work in the house of the patel, patwari mali-patel or deshmukh, to carry reports to police stations, taluk office (tehsil); keep watch on the village chavadi and the poundage.

. lyengar, S. K, 1951. Rural economic enquiries in the Hyderabad state. 1949-54. Hyderabad Govt. Printing Press, p .436.

. Reddy, A. H. 1950. Rural economic Investigations in Hyderabad state - village Chintapalli. Hyderabad, pp. 235 - 241.

. Barry Pavier, The Telangana movement 1944-51. Delhi, 1981. p. 7.

. Ibid., p. 26.

. Food Administrative Report 1944-51 H.E.H. The Nizam.

. Barry Pavier - pp. 38-39.

. .Madapati Hanumanth Rao, Telangana Andhrodyama Charitra.vol. II, Hyderabad, 1984, pp. 42.also see for more details Stree Shakti Sangatana, we were making History.... Life stories of women in the Telangana People's Struggle, kali for women, 1989, pp. 15-17. for more details look into Arutla Ramachandra Reddy,Telangana Porata Smrutulu.


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