“THEY DON’T KNOW THAT THEY DON’T KNOW”: REVEALING AND QUANTIFYING THE SOCRATES BIAS

Authors

  • Vasileios Kiosses PgDip, PhD(c) in Medical Education, Medical Education Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece,
  • Claire de Burbure Medical Education Advisor, Faculty of Medicine, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Ioannis D K Dimoliatis Associate Professor of Public Health and Medical Education, Medical Education Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Keywords:

Socrates bias, medical education, self-assessment, questionnaire, bias

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine whether bias (over- or under-estimation of self-competence) affects pre-training ratings and hence distorts the actual participation effect of experiential workshops.

Assessments were held during “empathy in doctor-patient relationship” elective courses held during winter 2014, spring 2015 and winter 2016 at Ioannina's Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece.

Twenty-eight women and 19 men aged 21-28 years (mean = 22.8, SD = 1.52), in 4th (n = 18), 5th (n = 19) and 6th (n=10) year of medical studies took part, voluntarily, in the empathy training.

The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy was used on a total of 47 medical undergraduates to measure empathic performance both before (B) and a-posteriori-before (P) training. Overestimation of empathic ability was calculated as the difference B-P, and its significance was checked through paired t-test, while effect size (Cohen’s d) was used to reveal any practical importance.

Participants’ mean B score (+SD) was 110.6 (10.5) whereas P was 88.6 (13.8; p(B-P) < 0.001). Assuming total P as the basis (100), total B was 124.8, i.e 24.8% overestimation. A very large effect size was found (d = 1.81) for B-P indicating a highly practical importance. There were no significant differences between the 3 cohorts nor between men &women.

This study revealed the existence of the “didn't know that they didn’t know” (DNKDNK) bias, offered a simple and easy method to measure it, and estimated it to be 24.8%.

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Additional Files

Published

15-06-2017

How to Cite

Vasileios Kiosses, Claire de Burbure, & Ioannis D K Dimoliatis. (2017). “THEY DON’T KNOW THAT THEY DON’T KNOW”: REVEALING AND QUANTIFYING THE SOCRATES BIAS. International Education and Research Journal (IERJ), 3(6). Retrieved from http://ierj.in/journal/index.php/ierj/article/view/1178